05; ***p < 0 001) To evaluate markers of M2-type activation, sec

05; ***p < 0.001). To evaluate markers of M2-type activation, secretion

of IL-10 was quantified by Bioplex assay (B), and expression of Arginase 1 and MR/CD206 in the adhered I-BET-762 order cells was tested by Western blotting (C). Lower panel, quantification of the protein levels by densitometric analysis of immunoreactive bands. Evaluation of the expression of typical M2 markers (IL-10, Arg-1 and MR/CD206) by the infected cells demonstrated that neither strain induced production of the IL-10 (Figure 3B). In contrast, all the studied mycobacterial strains were able to induce expression of Arg-1, and the highest level was observed in the cells infected with the strain MP287/03 (Figure 3C). The expression of

MR, which was constitutively high in the intact uninfected BMDM, was suppressed by treatment of the cells with LPS, or infection with the less virulent H37Rv and B2, whereas the cells infected with the strain MP287/03 continued to express high level of this receptor (Figure 3C). These data demonstrated that the proinflammatory activation of MΦ by clinical isolates of Mbv, and particularly by the KU55933 fast growing strain MP287/03, was significantly lower than that induced by the LPS or reference Mtb mycobacteria. Additionally, the strain MP287/03 induced in the MΦ a more pronounced expression of some M2 markers. However, strong secretion of proinflammatory MIP-2 chemokine observed in cell cultures infected by the strain MP287/03 suggested that these bacteria induced in MΦ an atypical, mixed M1/M2 activation phenotype. Modulating effects of the pathogenic mycobacterial strains on the macrophage activation phenotypes induced by the cell treatment with IFN-γ and IL-10 To study the MΦ activation phenotypes resulted from combining effects of bacteria and regulating cytokines, we evaluated expression of the markers of M1 (Figure 4A-4D) and M2 cells (Figure 4E and 4 F), pheromone by the pretreatment of infected BMDM with IFN-γ (Figure 4A), and IL-10 (Figure 4B). The markers expressed

by the infected cells, which were treated with the cytokines, were compared with those of the infected cells, which were left untreated. Treatment with IFN-γ enhanced production of proinflammatory mediators in cultures infected by all the strains studied. However, the levels of secretion varied in a strain-dependent manner. Macrophages infected by the Mbv strains in the presence of IFN-γ (Figure 4A) secreted significantly less TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1, than those infected by the H37Rv strain. In contrast, production of MIP-2 by the cells infected with Mbv was significantly higher. As expected, treatment with IFN-γ induced in the infected MΦ, or those treated with LPS, production of NO (Figure 4A), which is an see more important mediator of MΦ microbicidity, tightly regulated by the IFN-γ-dependent intracellular pathways.

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