25 and r = 0 17, respectively) Age at onset moderated the associ

25 and r = 0.17, respectively). Age at onset moderated the association CH5183284 supplier between change in neuropsychological functioning and change in reading and writing achievement (P <= 0.006), with stronger relationships among younger children (beta=0.25-0.44). The association between change in language and change in writing achievement was moderated by caregiver anxiety (P=0.04; stronger for more anxious parents, beta=0.40), and the association between change in processing speed and change in math achievement was moderated by etiology (P=0.02; stronger for symptomatic/cryptogenic vs idiopathic, (beta=0.29).

Gender and other family variables did not have significant moderating effects.

Conclusions: Changes in neuropsychological function were associated with changes in academic achievement following onset of seizures, with risk factors being younger age at onset, lower caregiver education, high parental anxiety, and symptomatic/cryptogenic

etiology. Academic performance should be closely monitored in children with early-onset seizures. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Objective: This article systematically analyses comparative studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tubeless https://www.selleckchem.com/HIF.html percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) versus standard PCNL. Methods: The Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane and DARE databases were searched from 1997 to February 2011. Comparative studies evaluating outcomes from standard versus tubeless PCNL were included. Primary outcome measures were post-operative pain scoring, analgesic requirements, duration of hospitalisation/convalescence, operation time, major/minor complications and stone-free rates. Results: Twenty-four studies were included (11 randomised control trials and 13 retrospective or prospective studies). Levels

of pain recorded, analgesic requirements, duration of inpatient stay and convalescence time were all significantly reduced in the tubeless PCNL group. Cost was reduced in two studies. Morbidity was not significantly different between the groups. There was no significant difference between groups regarding stone-free SB525334 cost status. Discussion: This systematic review has demonstrated that tubeless PCNL is a viable alternative to tubed PCNL in uncomplicated cases. Benefits are as described above. There is no evidence suggesting that patient safety is compromised by the absence of post-operative nephrostomy. The tubeless method has been reported in challenging cases such as stag-horn stones, horseshoe or ectopic kidneys. Promising outcomes have been demonstrated in elderly patients and when clinical needs demand a supracostal approach. Multi-centre randomised controlled trials are needed to fully establish the effectiveness of the tubeless method. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Photoluminescence (PL) and degenerate four-wave-mixing (DFWM) experiments were performed in a silica-niobic composite containing NaNbO(3) nanocrystals.

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