The IWT subjects trained at a target of 60 min of

The IWT subjects trained at a target of 60 min of AG-014699 molecular weight fast walking at bigger than 70% peak aerobic capacity for walking ((V) over dotO(2peak)) per wk for 12 wk, while those in the CNT maintained their previous sedentary life during the same period. We measured the energy expenditure of the daily physical activity, except during sleeping and bathing, every minute and every day during the intervention. We also measured the isometric knee extension (F-EXT) and flexion (F-FLX) forces, (V) over dotO(2peak), and anaerobic threshold during the graded cycling exercise ((V) over dotO(2AT)) before

and after the intervention. All subjects, except for one in IWT, completed the protocol. FFLX increased by 23% on the operated side (P = 0.003) and 14% on the non-operated

side of IWT (P = 0.006), while it only increased on the operated side of CNT (P = 0.03). The (V) over dotO(2peak) and (V) over dotO(2AT) in IWT increased by 8% (P = 0.08) and 13% (P = 0.002), respectively, and these changes were significantly higher in the IWT than in CNT group (both, P smaller than 0.05). In conclusion, IWT might be an effective home-based training regimen for preventing the muscle atrophy from reduced daily physical activity in THA patients.”
“Alcohol is the most commonly abused drug worldwide, and chronic alcohol consumption is a major etiological factor in the development of multiple pathological sequelae, including alcoholic cardiomyopathy and hepatic cirrhosis. Here, we identify regulator of G protein signaling 6 (RGS6) as a critical regulator of both alcohol-seeking behaviors and the associated cardiac and hepatic morbidities through two mechanistically divergent signaling actions. RGS6(-/-) mice consume less EPZ5676 cell line alcohol when given free access and are less susceptible to alcohol-induced reward and withdrawal. Antagonism of GABA(B) receptors or dopamine D2 receptors partially reversed the reduction in alcohol

consumption in RGS6(-/-) animals. Strikingly, dopamine transporter inhibition completely restored alcohol seeking in mice lacking RGS6. RGS6 deficiency was associated with alterations in the expression of genes controlling dopamine (DA) homeostasis and a reduction in DA levels in the striatum. Taken together, these data implicate RGS6 as an essential regulator of DA bioavailability. RGS6 deficiency also provided dramatic protection against cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, hepatic steatosis, and gastrointestinal barrier dysfunction and endo-toxemia when mice were forced to consume alcohol. Although RGS proteins canonically function as G-protein regulators, RGS6-dependent, alcohol-mediated toxicity in the heart, liver, and gastrointestinal tract involves the ability of RGS6 to promote reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis, an action independent of its G-protein regulatory capacity.

In most series, only a minority of patients with antiphospholipid

In most series, only a minority of patients with antiphospholipid antibodies develop a clinical manifestation.\n\nMethods.

A cross-sectional Study of consecutive patients in the Hopkins Lupus Center was performed. Interviews were done and records were reviewed for the following variables: gender, ethnicity, hypertension, triglycerides, cholesterol, smoking, diabetes mellitus, homocysteine, ACY-738 price cancer, hepatitis C, hormone replacement therapy/oral contraceptives, hereditary thrombophilia, anticardiolipin antibodies IgG, IgM and IgA, and lupus anticoagulant (LAC). Our aim was to identify risk factors associated with thrombosis and pregnancy loss in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies.\n\nResults. A total of 122 patients (84% female, 74% Caucasian) were studied. Patients were divided into 3 groups: primary APS, APS associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with antiphospholipid antibodies

but no thrombosis or pregnancy loss. Venous thrombosis was associated with high triglycerides (p = 0.001), hereditary thrombophilia (p = 0.02), anticardiolipin antibodies IgG > 40 (p = 0.04), and LAC (p = 0.012). Hypertriglyceridemia was associated with a 6.4-fold GDC-0973 purchase increase, hereditary thrombophilia with a 7.3-fold increase, and anticardiolipin IgG > 40 GPL with a 2.8-fold increase in the risk Of venous thrombosis. Arterial thrombosis was associated with hypertension

(p = 0.008) and elevated homocysteine (p = 0.044). Hypertension was associated with a 2.4-fold increase in the risk of arterial thrombosis. No correlations were found for pregnancy loss.\n\nConclusion. The frequency of thrombosis selleck kinase inhibitor and pregnancy loss is greater in APS associated with SLE than in primary APS. Risk factors differ for venous and arterial thrombosis in APS. Treatment of hypertension may be the most important intervention to reduce arterial thrombosis. Elevated triglycerides are a major associate of venous thrombosis, but the benefit of treatment is not known. Hereditary thrombophilia is an associate of venous but not arterial thrombosis, making it cost-effective five to investigate only ill venous thrombosis. (First Release May 15 2009; J Rheumatol 2009;36:1195-9; doi: 10.3899/jrheum.081194)”
“Chemical tissue fixation, followed by embedding in either agarose or Fomblin, is common practice in time-intensive MRI studies of ex vivo biological samples, and is required to prevent tissue autolysis and sample motion. However, the combined effect of fixation and sample embedding may alter tissue structure and MRI properties.

During July 2006, activity was most intense at significantly lowe

During July 2006, activity was most intense at significantly lower altitudes than occurred in spring or fall, and was not associated with the height of the fastest winds; consequently displacement speeds were significantly slower. The most

striking difference was an absence of tailwind selectivity in July with windborne movements occurring on almost every night of the month and on tailwinds from all directions. Finally, orientation behavior CBL0137 in vitro was quantitatively different during July, with significantly greater dispersion of flight headings and displacements than observed in spring and fall. We discuss mechanisms which could have caused these differences, and conclude that a lack of appropriate photoperiod cues during development of the summer generation resulted in randomly-oriented ‘dispersive’ movements that were strikingly different from typical seasonal migrations.”
“Although evaluations of tobacco and substance use disorders (SUDs) are required before bariatric surgery, the impact of these factors on postsurgical outcomes is unclear. This study describes (1) the prevalence of tobacco and SUDs in 61 veterans undergoing bariatric surgery, (2)

associations between presurgical tobacco use and postsurgical weight loss, and (3) relationships between presurgical SUDs and postsurgical weight loss. Height, weight, tobacco, and SUDs were assessed from medical charts at presurgery and 6, 12, and 24 months postsurgery. Thirty-three patients (55%) were former or recent tobacco users; GSK1210151A price eight BVD-523 ic50 (13%) had history of SUDs. All patients who quit smoking within 6 months before surgery resumed after surgery, which was associated with increased weight loss at 6 and 12 months. Presurgical SUDs were related to marginally worse weight loss at 12 and 24 months.

Bariatric surgery candidates with history of smoking and/or SUDs might benefit from additional services to improve postsurgical outcomes.”
“Background/Purpose Lysine-specific gingipain (Kgp) is a virulence factor secreted from Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), a major etiological bacterium of periodontal disease. Keratin intermediate filaments maintain the structural integrity of gingival epithelial cells, but are targeted by Kgp to produce a novel cytokeratin 6 fragment (K6F). We investigated the release of K6F and its induction of cytokine secretion. Methods K6F present in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontal disease patients and in gingipain-treated rat gingival epithelial cell culture supernatants was measured by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer-based rapid quantitative peptide analysis using BLOTCHIP. K6F in gingival tissues was immunostained, and cytokeratin 6 protein was analyzed by immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry. Activation of MAPK in gingival epithelial cells was evaluated by immunoblotting.

“We report for the first time the distribution

“We report for the first time the distribution and hazard potential of aerosol and metals resulting from joss paper burning. Burning joss paper and incense is a traditional custom in many Oriental countries. Large amounts of air

pollutants, including particles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, toxic metals and other gaseous pollutants, are released into the environment during the burning stage. Many investigations have reported on the emission of pollutants from the incense burning. However, no work has been reported until now on the analysis of the released pollutants apart from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this study, a micro-orifice uniform-deposit GSK2879552 datasheet impactor and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were, respectively, used to collect aerosols and characterize the toxic metals from joss paper burning. We studied two types of particulate matter (PM): PM2.5 that are particles with a diameter smaller than 2.5 mu m and PM10 that are particles with a diameter smaller than 10 mu m. PM2.5 are the most potentially toxic particles. Our results showed that PM2.5 are the major component of the pollutants and that the PM2.5 to PM10 ratio ranged from 62 to 99%. The metals Na, Ca, Mg, Al and K were the main species in the aerosol and in the bottom ash.”

Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are the main pathogens associated with the development of dental

caries in humans. Recently, the real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR-TR) has been used for fast and exact quantification of these bacteria species. This molecular biology method has made the detection of these bacteria in saliva and dental plaque possible; additionally, URMC-099 order it aids the development of illness risk prediction. The purpose of this prospective, analytic, transversal, observational and unicenter study was to quantify the spaP gene of the Streptococcus mu tans and its correlation with caries in a group of children using isolated DNA from plaque samples processed through qPCR-TR, using specific oligonucleotides for this gene detection.\n\nMaterials and methods The cariogenic potential of Streptococcus mu tans in the dental plaque was analysed in a group of patients aged 12 to 46 months. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. The Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to establish the correlation between caries (dmft) index (decayed/missing/filled primary teeth), spaP gene and age group. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare MSB cultivation technique and qPCR-TR.\n\nResults and conclusion In the molecular trials, a close association between caries prevalence in childhood and the presence and high proportion of the spaP gene of S. mutans was found. The average caries prevalence was 3.71, and it increased as age range increased.

These in vitro and in vivo findings indicate that opioid use impa

These in vitro and in vivo findings indicate that opioid use impairs intracellular innate anti-HIV mechanism(s) in monocytes, contributing to cell susceptibility SRT2104 to HIV infection. (Am J Pathol 2011, 178:41-47; DOI: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2010.11.042)”
“In the present

study, ethanolic extract of twigs from Cinnamomum osmophloeum led to isolate nine kaempferol glycosides including two new kaempferol triglycosides that were characterized as kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 -> 2)-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) and kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 -> 2)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2). The structures of these compounds were assigned by the application of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and other techniques. Among these nine compounds, kaempferol 7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (9) revealed inhibitory effect against LPS-induced production of nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 macrophages with an IC50 value of 41.2 mu M. It also slightly reduced PGE(2) accumulation by 26% KPT-8602 in vitro at the concentration of 50 mu M. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) often have evidence of compromised gastrointestinal motility. Ghrelin is a gut hormone that influences gastrointestinal motility in humans. The aim of this

study was to determine whether ghrelin secretion is affected in MSA patients, and to investigate the relation between ghrelin secretion and gastrointestinal symptoms. FK228 Plasma levels of active ghrelin and unacylated ghrelin were measured in patients with MSA (n = 30), other atypical parkinsonian disorders including progressive supranuclear palsy-Richardson syndrome and corticobasal syndrome (n = 24), and

control subjects (n = 24) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Gastrointestinal symptoms were quantified in all subjects using a self-report questionnaire. The ratio of active ghrelin to total ghrelin in the plasma (active ghrelin ratio) was lower in patients with MSA (mean: 8.0 %) than in patients with other atypical parkinsonian disorders (mean: 13.7 %, P = 0.001) and control subjects (mean: 13.9 %, P = 0.001). The active ghrelin ratio was correlated with the severity of gastrointestinal symptoms in MSA (r = -0.5, P = 0.004). Our observations indicate that ghrelin secretion is affected in patients with MSA. The low active ghrelin ratio may contribute to gastrointestinal symptoms in MSA.”
“Studies of families and twins show the importance of genetic factors affecting susceptibility to bipolar disorder and suggest substantial genetic and phenotypic complexity. Robust and replicable genome-wide significant associations have recently been reported in genome-wide association studies at several common polymorphisms, including variants within the genes CACNA1C, ODZ4, and NCAN. Strong evidence exists for a polygenic contribution to risk (ie, many risk alleles of small effect).

The objective

of the study was to identify the mechanism

The objective

of the study was to identify the mechanism of action of WP beyond insulin on the reduction LY411575 mw of post-meal glycemia. In a randomized crossover study, healthy young men received preloads (300 ml) of WP (10 and 20 g), glucose (10 and 20 g) or water (control). Paracetamol (1.5 g) was added to the preloads to measure gastric emptying. Plasma concentrations of paracetamol, glucose, and beta-cell and gastrointestinal hormones were measured before preloads (baseline) and at intervals before (0-30 min) and after (50-230 min) a preset pizza meal (12 kcal/kg). Whey protein slowed pre-meal gastric emptying rate compared to the control and 10 g glucose (P smaller than .0001), and induced lower pre-meal insulin and C-peptide than the glucose preloads (P smaller than .0001). Glucose, but not WP, increased pre-meal plasma glucose concentrations (P smaller than .0001). Both WP and glucose reduced post-meal glycemia (P=.0006) and resulted in similar CCK, amylin, ghrelin and GIP responses (P smaller than .05). However, compared

with glucose, WP resulted in higher post-meal GLP-1 and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and lower insulin concentrations, without altering insulin secretion and extraction rates. For the total duration of this study (0-230 min), WP resulted in lower mean plasma glucose, Screening Library concentration insulin and C-peptide, but higher GLP-1 and PYY concentrations than the glucose preloads. In conclusion, pre-meal consumption of WP lowers post-meal glycemia by both insulin-dependent and insulin-independent mechanisms. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“This study assessed whether the abundance of girellids and kyphosids was related to cover of the palatable green algae, Ulva australis and Ulva compressa, on rocky intertidal reefs in Jervis Bay, New South Wales, Australia. No relationship was found between Ulva spp. cover BMS-777607 manufacturer and abundance

of Girella tricuspidata, Girella elevata and Kyphosus sydneyanus during a period of relatively low Ulva spp. cover (i.e. February 2011 to March 2011), but during a period of significantly higher Ulva spp. cover (i.e. October 2011 to November 2011) there was a strong correlation between Ulva spp. cover and G. tricuspidata abundance. Spatial analysis indicated that the abundance of G. tricuspidata was consistent across time, suggesting G. tricuspidata were not moving between reefs in response to variation in Ulva spp. cover between periods but rather that large schools of G. tricuspidata resided on reefs that had relatively higher Ulva spp. cover at certain times of the year.”
“The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore the subjective experiences of infertile women who conceived through the use of assisted reproduction technology-ovarian stimulation, intrauterine insemination or IVF-only to lose their pregnancy at 2-16 weeks gestation.\n\nTen women participated in in-depth, tape-recorded interviews.

Therefore, the conventional glucose-based solutions-despite their

Therefore, the conventional glucose-based solutions-despite their known negative

features-continue to have a well-established role in PD therapy, particularly in the many countries where the newer PD solutions are not easily available.”
“Roll nanoimprint technology has many advantages, including continuous fabrication of functional structures and fast pattern transfer on a large area. From the viewpoint of mass production, the hydrophobic characteristic of the nanopatterned roll stamp surface is important for minimizing defects that can be generated during the demolding process. In this study, polyvinylsilazane (PVSZ) was used for the top layer of a quartz CA4P in vitro roll stamp because the cured PVSZ is a nonsticky silicate with high mechanical properties (hardness of 416 GPa and Young’s modulus of GF120918 3.27 GPa). In addition, PVSZ has good characteristics: ultraviolet curability at room temperature, high optical transparency, and excellent release properties after the hydrolysis process. Furthermore, the cured PVSZ layer after the hydrolysis process does not require any additional surface modification and can be used as an ideal mold with a low adhesion force for roll nanoimprint lithographic

applications. (C) 2012 American Vacuum Society. []“
“In this paper, we propose modeling the activity coordination ARRY-470 network between lumbar muscles using surface electromyography (sEMG) signals and performing the network analysis to compare the lumbar muscle coordination patterns between patients with low back pain (LBP) and healthy control subjects. Ten healthy subjects and eleven LBP patients were asked to perform flexion-extension task, and the sEMG signals were recorded. Both the subject-level and the group-level PCfdr algorithms are applied to learn the sEMG coordination networks with the error-rate being controlled. The network features are further characterized in terms of network symmetry, global efficiency,

clustering coefficient and graph modules. The results indicate that the networks representing the normal group are much closer to the order networks and clearly exhibit globally symmetric patterns between the left and right sEMG channels. While the coordination activities between sEMG channels for the patient group are more likely to cluster locally and the group network shows the loss of global symmetric patterns. As a complementary tool to the physical and anatomical analysis, the proposed network analysis approach allows the visualization of the muscle coordination activities and the extraction of more informative features from the sEMG data for low back pain studies. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

“Vulcanization gives birth to the nonuniformity of rubber

“Vulcanization gives birth to the nonuniformity of rubber network, the identification of which TNF-alpha inhibitor is the basis of improvement of performance of rubber products. We established a visco-hyperelastic

constitutive equation to reveal the quantitative distribution of the inhomogeneous network phases according to a three-phase model. The cross-linked network was assumed to be composed of the cross-linking cluster, the low network chain density domain and the fluid-like mass. The incorporation of clay with high specific surface area induced the effective uniformity of network structure by decreasing the content of the cross-linking cluster and increasing that of the low network chain density domain. These structural variations were responsible for excellent mechanical properties and strong strain-induced crystallization ability probed by the in situ synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 40324.”
“Nitroepoxides are easily transformed into 1,4-diamino heterocycles such as quinoxalines and pyrazines by treatment

with 1,2-benzenediamines and ammonia, respectively. Additionally, related saturated heterocycles, such as piperazines and tetrahydroquinoxalines, can be accessed by treatment with 1,2-diamines and a reducing agent. These transformations are efficient, provide access privileged, bioactive structures, and produce minimal waste.”
“Background: EMR at the anorectal junction (ARJ) is technically challenging. Issues of safety and procedural efficacy dictate that surgery is still performed as the primary management for noninvasive lesions in most centers. Modifications Oligomycin A order to the standard EMR technique may help to address the unique features and achieve safe and curative resection of most

lesions. Objective: To describe an effective and safe, modified EMR technique to remove advanced mucosal neoplasia (AMN) of the ARJ. Design: Prospective, observational cohort study. Setting: Academic, tertiary care referral center. Patients: Patients undergoing EMR for AMN at the ARJ over 4.5 years, from June 2008 to December 2012. Interventions: Use of long-acting local anesthetic in the submucosal injectate, endoscopic resection over the dentate line and hemorrhoidal columns, prophylactic antibiotics for resection of lesions at high risk for bacteremia, and cap and gastroscope-assisted resection. RG-7112 datasheet Main Outcome Measurements: Procedural success and safety. Results: Twenty-six patients with lesions involving the ARJ were referred for EMR (males 53.8%, median age 63, median lesion size 40 mm). Two patients went directly to surgery because of an endoscopic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. EMR was performed in 24 lesions with complete adenoma clearance achieved in 100%. Four patients were admitted to the hospital. Focal adenoma recurrence was seen in 4 of 18 patients (22%) at first surveillance colonoscopy and was managed by snare diathermy resection.

Trees bigger than 3m in height showed recruitment and gains up t

Trees bigger than 3m in height showed recruitment and gains up to 2.2 times higher in the CR where they are likely to be protected for cultural reasons, but losses of up to 3.2-fold more in the PA, possibly due to treefall caused by elephant and/or fire. ConclusionLand use has affected sub-canopy Stem Cells & Wnt inhibitor structure in the adjacent sites, with the low intensity use CR showing higher structural diversity. A 3D classification approach was successful in detecting fine-scale, short-term changes between land uses, and can thus be used as a monitoring tool for savanna woody vegetation structure.”
“Context.-c-Met is important in the pathogenesis, invasion, and spread of several forms

of lung cancer, and multiple c-Met inhibitors are undergoing clinical trials. PAX5 has been shown to upregulate c-Met in small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), and coinhibiting PAX5 and c-Met had a synergic effect in killing tumor cells. Paxillin is a downstream target of activated c-Met, and its activation leads to enhanced cell motility and tumor spread. The expression patterns of these functionally related proteins have not, to our knowledge, been systemically studied in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.\n\nObjective.-To investigate the expression patterns of PAX5, paxillin, c-Met, and phosphorylated c-Met in 4 categories of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors.\n\nDesign.-Tissue Selleckchem VX-809 microarrays of

38 typical carcinoids, 6 atypical carcinoids, 34 SCLCs, and 11 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas were studied with immunohistochemistry.\n\nResults.-Most of the 4 tumor types expressed c-Met, phosphorylated c-Met, and paxillin. PAX5 was frequently expressed in atypical carcinoids, SCLCs, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas but tended to be negative in typical carcinoids. Coexpression of PAX5 with c-Met or phosphorylated c-Met was present in most of the atypical carcinoids, SCLCs, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas.

Significant correlation between PAX5 and paxillin was detected in SCLCs and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas but not in carcinoid tumors.\n\nConclusions.-The frequent coexpression of PAX5 with c-Met or phosphorylated c-Met in intermediate-grade and high-grade neuroendocrine tumors supports the therapeutic strategy of coinhibiting these proteins. The discrepancy between high-grade and low-grade neuroendocrine tumors in PAX5/paxillin expression correlation may be due to the different underlying molecular genetics of these tumors. (Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2010; 134: 1702-1705)”
“The treatment of Aortic Aneurysm disease is a growing procedure due to increase of life expectancy in Western Countries and relative incidence. In the past ten years we observed a progressive growth of endovascular over open surgery procedures with a related decline in rupture related deaths.

The shelf life of the resins did not prolong and lasted maximum f

The shelf life of the resins did not prolong and lasted maximum for about 2 months which was ascribed to the presence of reasonable amount of carboxyl terminal groups at the ends of a minor portion of the glycolyzed products that could actively act to self-catalyze the polycondensation and crosslinking reactions

during storage leading eventually to vitrification of the resin and shortening of shelf life. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 2377-2383, 2012″
“The aim Akt activity of this work was to compare the prevalence of cyclops lesions after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) using the single-bundle and remnant bundle preservation techniques.\n\nOne hundred consecutive patients, who had undergone postoperative Lonafarnib price MRI of the knee followed by arthroscopic ACLR with the remnant bundle preservation technique (R) between February 2007 and August 2010, were enrolled in this study. Thirty-six consecutive patients who underwent ACLR using the single-bundle technique (S) were also included in this study as a control group. The MR findings were scored based on the presence of pre-ACL graft lesion as 0, 1, 2, or 3 on the sagittal images. The sixty-one specimens by second-look surgery (20 in S, 41 in R) were pathologically examined.\n\nThe numbers of patients with scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 1, 18, 14, and 3 in selleck inhibitor group S and 4, 60, 29, and 7, in group

R, respectively. Of the 61 patients who underwent second-look surgery (20 in S, 41 in R), eight had a cyclops lesion (three in group

S and five in group R). The prevalence of cyclops lesion was not significantly different in group R and group S (p = 0.761).\n\nThe prevalence of a cyclops lesion was similar in both groups.”
“Typically, active muscle force is calculated by subtracting measured passive force from measured total force for corresponding whole muscle lengths (standard method). From a mechanical point of view, this requires a parallel elastic component (PEC) that is arranged in parallel to both the series elastic component (SEC) and the contractile component (CC). From a morphological point of view, however, the PEC should be rather in parallel to the CC, and both in series to the SEC (model [CC]). In this study, we investigated the differences in active muscle force estimated with these two different approaches and their impact on the interpretation of experiments. We measured passive forces without stimulation and total forces during supramaximal stimulation of six cat soleus muscles in end-held isometric contractions from lengths near active insufficiency to lengths close to inducing stretch damage. The active forces estimated with model [CC] reach about 10% higher maximum isometric forces and reveal about 10% longer optimal lengths of the CC compared to the standard method.