Compared with the DC group, the percentages of interleukin-17F an

Compared with the DC group, the percentages of interleukin-17F and interferon-gamma in blood and transcription factors, T-bet and RAR-related orphan receptor-gamma t, gene expressions in mesenteric lymph nodes were lower, whereas blood Foxp3 was higher in the DG group. Also, DG group had lower colon injury score. These results suggest that Gln administration suppressed Th1/Th17 and Th-associated cytokine expressions and upregulated the expression of Tregs, which may modulate the balance of Th/Treg and reduce inflammatory reactions

in DSS-induced colitis.”
“ObjectiveThe objectives of the present study were analyze specific comorbidities associated with survival and actual causes of death for patients with small renal masses, and to suggest a

simplified measure associated with decreased overall survival specific to this population. MethodsThe Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database (1995-2007) was queried to identify patients with localized T1a kidney cancer undergoing partial nephrectomy, radical nephrectomy or deferring therapy. We explored independent associations of specific comorbidities with causes of death, and developed a simplified cardiovascular index. Cox proportional hazards, and Fine and Gray competing risks regression were used. ResultsOf 7177 Medicare beneficiaries in the study population, 754 (10.5%) deferred therapy, 1849 (25.8%) underwent partial nephrectomy and 4574 (63.7%) underwent radical nephrectomy with none of the selected comorbidities identified in 3682 (51.3%) patients. Congestive heart failure, Selleckchem Selisistat chronic kidney disease, peripheral vascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes and cerebrovascular disease were associated with decreased overall survival.

The cardiovascular index provided good survival risk stratification, and reclassified 1427 (41%) patients with a score 1 on the Charlson Comorbidity Index to a 0 on the cardiovascular index with minimal concession of 5-year survival. ConclusionsCongestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, peripheral vascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes and cerebrovascular disease were associated with decreased overall survival among Medicare beneficiaries with small renal masses. The cardiovascular index could serve as a clinically useful prognostic aid when advising older patients that are borderline candidates for surgery or active surveillance.”
“Muscle contraction is normally mediated by the release of neurotransmitters from motor neurons. Here we demonstrate that protons can act as a direct transmitter from intestinal cells to stimulate muscle contraction. During the C. elegans defecation motor program the posterior body muscles contract even in the absence of neuronal inputs or vesicular neurotransmission.

We report the first case, to our knowledge, of PNP with eosinophi

We report the first case, to our knowledge, of PNP with eosinophilic spongiosis as the initial histopathological finding, and presence of autoantibodies to Dsc2 and Dsc3.”
“The convergence of the antagonistic reactions of membrane fusion and

fission at the hemifusion/hemifission intermediate has generated a captivating enigma of whether Soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor Attachment Protein Receptor (SNAREs) and dynamin have unusual counter-functions in fission and fusion, respectively. SNARE-mediated fusion and dynamin-driven fission are fundamental membrane flux reactions known to occur Belnacasan supplier during ubiquitous cellular communication events such as exocytosis, endocytosis and vesicle transport. Here we demonstrate the influence of the dynamin homolog Vps1 (Vacuolar protein sorting 1) on lipid mixing and content mixing properties of yeast vacuoles, and on the incorporation of SNAREs into fusogenic complexes. We propose a novel concept that Vps1, through its oligomerization and SNARE domain binding, promotes the hemifusion-content mixing transition in yeast vacuole fusion by increasing the number of trans-SNAREs.”
“Alginates have been used widely in

biomedical applications because of good biocompatibility, low cost, and rapid gelation in the presence of calcium ions. However, poor mechanical properties and fabrication-ability for three-dimensional shapes have been obstacles in hard-tissue Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor engineering applications. To overcome these shortcomings of alginates, we suggest a new composite system, consisting of a synthetic polymer, poly(e-caprolactone), and various weight fractions (1040 wt %) of alginate. The fabricated

composite scaffolds displayed a multilayered 3D structure, consisting of microsized composite struts, and they provided a 100% offset for each layer. To show the feasibility of the scaffold for hard tissue regeneration, the composite scaffolds fabricated were assessed not only for physical properties, including LY2603618 chemical structure surface roughness, tensile strength, and water absorption and wetting, but also in vitro osteoblastic cellular responses (cell-seeding efficiency, cell viability, fluorescence analyses, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mineralization) by culturing with preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1). Due to the alginate components in the composites, the scaffolds showed significantly enhanced wetting behavior, water-absorption (similar to 12-fold), and meaningful biological activities (similar to 2.1-fold for cell-seeding efficiency, similar to 2.5-fold for cell-viability at 7 days, similar to 3.4-fold for calcium deposition), compared with a pure PCL scaffold.

We demonstrate that it increases the signal-to-noise ratio of all

We demonstrate that it increases the signal-to-noise ratio of allelic

signals, making it significantly easier to detect allelic imbalances.\n\nConclusions: TumorBoost increases the power to detect somatic copy-number events (including copy-neutral LOH) in the tumor from allelic signals of Affymetrix or Illumina origin. We also conclude that high-precision allelic estimates can be obtained from a C59 cost single pair of tumor-normal hybridizations, if TumorBoost is combined with single-array preprocessing methods such as (allele-specific) CRMA v2 for Affymetrix or BeadStudio’s (proprietary) XY-normalization method for Illumina. A bounded-memory implementation is available in the open-source and cross-platform R package, which is part of the Aroma Project (”
“To compare the positions of the aorta

relative to vertebral bodies and Galardin order the potential risk of the aorta impingement for pedicle screw (PS) placement between right-sided and left-sided thoracolumbar/lumbar curves of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).\n\nThirty-nine AIS patients with a main thoracolumbar or lumbar curve were recruited. The Lenke’s classification was type 5C in all patients. According to the convexity of the thoracolumbar or lumbar curves, the patients were divided into either group R or Group L. The patients in Group R had a main right-sided thoracolumbar/lumbar curve, and the patients in Group L had a main left-sided thoracolumbar/lumbar curve. Axial CT images from T12 to L4 at the midvertebral body level were obtained to evaluate Aorta-vertebra angle (alpha), Vertebral rotation angle (beta), Copanlisib PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor Lefty safety distance (LSD), and Right safety distance (RSD). The risks of the aorta impingement from T12 to L4 were calculated and then compared between the two groups.\n\nThe alpha increased from T12 through L4 in Group R, increased from T12 through L1, and then decreased from L1 through L4 in Group L. The beta decreased from T12 through L4 in both groups. The LSD constantly

increased from T12 through L4 in Group R, increased from T12 through L3, and then decreased from L3 through L4 in Group L. The RSD increased from T12 through L3 and then decreased from L3 through L4 in both groups. With the increment of the lengths of the simulated screws, the aorta impingement risks were constantly elevated at all levels in both groups. The aorta was at a high risk of impingement from left PS regardless of the diameters of the simulated screws in Group R (80-100 % at T12 and 53.3-100 % at L1). In Group L, the aorta was completely safe when using 35 mm (0 at all levels) PS and at high risks of the aorta impingement on the right side from 45 mm PSs (31.8-72.7 %). In all, the risks of the aorta impingement were mainly from left PS in Group R and from right PS in Group L, and the risk of the aorta impingement from PS placement was generally higher in right thoracolumbar or lumbar curves when compared with that of the left.

The testosterone level in eggs from experimental females was posi

The testosterone level in eggs from experimental females was positively related to the laying order,

whereas control eggs did not show any trend. Our results provided mixed support for the DAH, but nevertheless PLX3397 revealed that female red-legged partridges may adjust their breeding investment according to male carotenoid-based ornamentation.”
“Identifying patients in a Target Customer Segment (TCS) is important to determine the demand for, and to appropriately allocate resources for, health care services. The purpose of this study is to propose a two-stage clustering-classification model through (1) initially integrating the RFM attribute and K-means algorithm for clustering the TCS patients and (2) then integrating the global discretization method and the rough set theory for classifying hospitalized departments and optimizing health care services. To assess the performance of the proposed model, a dataset was used from a representative hospital (termed Hospital-A) that was extracted from a database from an empirical study in Taiwan comprised of 183,947 samples that were characterized by 44 attributes during 2008.

The proposed model was compared with three techniques, Decision Tree, Naive Bayes, and Multilayer Perceptron, and the empirical results showed significant promise of its accuracy. The generated knowledge-based rules provide useful information to maximize resource utilization and support selleck chemicals the development of a strategy for decision-making in hospitals. From the findings, 75 patients in the TCS, three hospital departments, and specific diagnostic Angiogenesis inhibitor items were discovered in the data for Hospital-A. A potential determinant for gender differences was found, and the

age attribute was not significant to the hospital departments. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a growing family of peptides that have opened a new avenue in drug delivery, allowing various hydrophilic macromolecules to enter cells. In accordance with most other cationic delivery vectors, CPPs seem to rely mostly on endocytosis for internalization. However, due to conflicting results the exact endocytic pathways for CPP uptake have not yet been resolved. Here, we evaluated the ability of seven CPPs, with different chemical properties, to convey peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) inside cells. Assays based on both splice correction, generating biologically active read-out, and on traditional fluorescence measurements were utilized. The same assays were employed to assess different endocytic pathways and the dependence on extracellular heparan sulfates for internalization. Both highly cationic CPPs (M918, penetratin, and Tat) and amphipathic peptides (transportan, TP10, MAP, and pVEC) were investigated in this study. Conjugate uptake relied on endocytosis for all seven peptides but splice-correcting activity varied greatly for the investigated CPPs.

The role of the endometrial receptors in this complex embryo-mate

The role of the endometrial receptors in this complex embryo-maternal interaction is still unclear. We tested gene and protein expression of endometrial receptors (Progesterone receptor (PR) and c-Met) and the effect of theses receptors in endometrial receptivity.\n\nMethods: Two endometrial cell lines were used: HEC-1A and RL95-2 considered as being of low and high receptivity, respectively. Western blot and RT-PCR analysis were utilized to study the receptor expression profile. The role of endometrial receptors in endometrial receptivity was studied by attachment and invasion assays of JAR spheroids

(made of a trophoblast cell line) on endometrial cells. Different manipulations of inhibition and stimulation of the endometrial receptors were High Content Screening used including: inhibition by specific antibodies against the receptors, or antagonist of the receptors, as well as transfection with antisense for the endometrial receptors, stimulation HSP activation by specific

ligands for the receptors and transfection with the gene for endometrial receptors.\n\nResults: Different protein expression patterns of endometrial receptors were observed between the tested endometrial cell lines. The expression levels of PRA ratio to PRB, and the 50 kDa c-MET isoform were significantly lower in HEC-1A as compared with RL95-2. Attachment rates and growth of JAR spheroids into HEC-1A were significantly lower as compared with RL95-2. Stimulation of PR with progesterone altered attachment rates to HEC-1A. Inhibition of PR with RU-486 mildly increased attachment rate to HEC-1A whereas it slightly decreased attachment rate to RL95-2. c-Met inhibition decreased attachment rates only to HEC-1A cells that expressing high levels of Plexin-B1 (PB1). Immunoprecipitation studies revealed that c-Met and PB1 associate in complexes in the endometrial cell lines.\n\nConclusion: Differential endometrial receptor profiles are expressed during the receptivity period. The attachment and invasion processes are separately

regulated. We suggest a biologically functional role for PRA in endometrial receptivity this website and in the attachment process. c-Met contribution is minor and related with creation of a complex with PB1.”
“Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial mechanism for the acquisition of migratory and invasive capabilities by epithelial cancer cells. By conducting quantitative proteomics in experimental models of human prostate cancer (PCa) metastasis, we observed strikingly decreased expression of EPLIN (epithelial protein lost in neoplasm; or LIM domain and actin binding 1, LIMA-1) upon EMT. Biochemical and functional analyses demonstrated that EPLIN is a negative regulator of EMT and invasiveness in PCa cells. EPLIN depletion resulted in the disassembly of adherens junctions, structurally distinct actin remodeling and activation of beta-catenin signaling.

These developments will create opportunities for deeper studies o

These developments will create opportunities for deeper studies of cancer genetics and the clinical application of genome sequencing, and will motivate further research in cancer pathogenesis.”
“Objective: In the DSM-IV, individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) and those with purging disorder (PD) receive a diagnosis of eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), suggesting no meaningful differences between clinical presentations. This article compares PD and BED on eating disorder severity and comorbid disorders.\n\nMethod: Individuals with PD (n = 33), DSM-IV BED

(n = 23 with BMI >30 kg/m(2), and n = 18 with BMI between 18.5 and 26.5 kg/m(2)), and noneating disorder controls (n = 35) completed SCID-I interviews and questionnaires.\n\nResults: Eating disorder groups reported significantly greater depression, body dissatisfaction, and dietary restraint and more Axis I disorders compared Crenigacestat in vivo with controls. Compared with both the obese and normal weight BED groups, PD reported significantly greater dietary restraint and body dissatisfaction. Compared with obese BED, PD reported lower prevalence of impulse control disorders.\n\nDiscussion: Findings support differentiating among EDNOS based on behavioral presentation in both research AP24534 clinical trial and future nosological schemes such as the DSM-V.

(C) 2010 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Objective: Atrial septal defect is one of the most commonly encountered congenital heart diseases in adults. The effect of age of the patient to the surgery is disputable. The purpose of this report was to evaluate surgical repair in patients with ASD who are operated in our clinic. Methods: Total 40 patients were subjected to surgical repair due to ASD in Van Yuksek lhtisas Education and Research Hospital between February 2006 and April 2009. Twenty

seven of the patients were female and 13 were male, their ages differed between 8 and 71 and mean age of the patients was 33.70 +/- 14.04. Result: Operative mortality did not occur. Two of our patients had coronary arterial disease in addition this website to ASD. ASD repair was performed together with coronary bypass surgery. Closing of ASD resulted in an increase in left ventricular ejection fraction, and a decrease in pulmonary arterial pressure and cardiothoracic ratio. Recovery in the functional capacity was observed post-surgery according to NYHA. Conclusion: in this series, surgical results of the patients of various ages, with ASD closed were positive.”
“The tumor suppressor p53 plays a central role in the regulation of cellular growth and apoptosis. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, over-expression of the human wtp53 leads to growth inhibition and cell death on minimal medium. In the present work, we showed that deletion of the nuclear localization signal (NLSI) of p53 restores the yeast growth.

These damaged nucleobases are removed by DNA N-glycosylase and fo

These damaged nucleobases are removed by DNA N-glycosylase and form apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) as intermediates in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. AP sites are also representative DNA damages formed by spontaneous hydrolysis. The AP sites block DNA polymerase and a mismatch nucleobase is inserted opposite the AP sites by polymerization to cause acute toxicities and mutations. Thus, AP site specific compounds have attracted much attention for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. In this study, we have developed nucleobase-polyamine conjugates as the AP site binding ligand by expecting that the nucleobase part would play a role in the specific

recognition of the nucleobase opposite the AP site by the Watson-Crick Galunisertib base pair formation and that the polyamine part should contribute to the access of the ligand to the AP site by a non-specific interaction to the DNA phosphate backbone. The nucleobase conjugated with 3,3′-diaminodipropylamine (A-ligand, G-ligand, C-ligand, T-ligand and U-ligand) showed a specific stabilization of the duplex containing the AP site depending MLN8237 inhibitor on the complementary combination with the nucleobase opposite the AP site; that

is A-ligand to T, G-ligand to C, C-ligand to G, T- and U-ligand to A. The thermodynamic binding parameters clearly indicated that the specific stabilization is due to specific binding of the ligands to the complementary AP site. These results have suggested that the complementary base pairs of the Watson-Crick type are formed at the SBE-β-CD AP site. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“GATA-1 controls hematopoietic development by activating and repressing gene transcription, yet the in vivo mechanisms that specify these opposite activities are unknown. By examining the composition

of GATA-1-associated protein complexes in a conditional erythroid rescue system as well as through the use of tiling arrays we detected the SCL/TAL1, LMO2, Ldb1, E2A complex at all positively acting GATA-1-bound elements examined. Similarly, the SCL complex is present at all activating GATA elements in megakaryocytes and mast cells. In striking contrast, at sites where GATA-1 functions as a repressor, the SCL complex is depleted. A DNA-binding defective form of SCL maintains association with a subset of active GATA elements indicating that GATA-1 is a key determinant for SCL recruitment. Knockdown of LMO2 selectively impairs activation but not repression by GATA-1. ETO-2, an SCL-associated protein with the potential for transcription repression, is also absent from GATA-1-repressed genes but, unlike SCL, fails to accumulate at GATA-1 activated genes. Together, these studies identify the SCL complex as a critical and consistent determinant of positive GATA-1 activity in multiple GATA-1-regulated hematopoietic cell lineages. (Blood.

Available evidence indicates that the kinase network normally fun

Available evidence indicates that the kinase network normally functions as a switch to change the mineralocorticoid hormone response of the kidney to either conserve sodium or excrete potassium, depending on whether aldosterone is induced by a change in dietary sodium or potassium. Recently, common genetic variants in the SPAK gene have been identified as HTN susceptibility factors in the general population, suggesting that altered WNK-SPAK signaling plays an important

role in essential HTN. Here, we highlight recent breakthroughs in this emerging field and discuss areas of consensus and uncertainty. Kidney International (2010) LY2835219 purchase 77, 1063-1069; doi: 10.1038/ki.2010.103; published online 14 April this website 2010″
“Gefitinib (Iressa) is a selective inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase. Recent studies confirmed that gefitinib interacted with the breast cancer resistance

protein (BCRP) at submicromolar concentrations, whereas other multidrug transporters, including P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed much lower reactivity toward gefitinib. Recently, many tracers for positron emission tomography (PET) have been prepared to study P-gp function in vivo; however, PET tracers had not been evaluated for both P-gp and BCRP modulation in the brain. Therefore, we evaluated in vivo brain penetration-mediated P-gp and BCRP in mice using [(11)C]gefitinib. Co-injection with gefitinib (over 50 mg/kg), a nonspecific P-gp modulator cyclosporin A (50 mg/kg),

and the dual P-gp and BCRP modulator GF120918 (over 5 mg/kg) induced an increase in the brain uptake of [(11)C]gefitinib in mice 30 min after injection. In the PET study of mice, the radioactivity level in the brain with co-injection of GF120918 (5 mg/kg) was three- to PP2 research buy fourfold higher than that in control after initial uptake. The radioactivity level in the brain in P-gp and Bcrp knockout mice was approximately eightfold higher than that in wild-type mice 60 min after injection. In conclusion, [(11)C]gefitinib is a promising PET tracer to evaluate the penetration of gefitinib into the brain by combined therapy with P-gp or BCRP modulators, and into brain tumors. Furthermore, PET study with GF120918 is a promising approach for evaluating brain penetration-mediated P-gp and BCRP. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“To explore the possibility of step-down method and low dose of etanercept for long-term stable remission of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Patients with JIA were enrolled into this study between February 2008 and March 2010 and then followed up for 2 years. The inclusion criteria were clinical remission and use of etanercept for therapy. On the first year of the study, the dose of etanercept was kept at 0.

The P falciparum ATPase 6 (pfatp6)

gene has been propose

The P. falciparum ATPase 6 (pfatp6)

gene has been proposed to be a potential marker for artemisinin resistance. In our previous clinical study, we showed that artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is highly effective against uncomplicated malaria in Yaounde, Cameroon. In the present study, dhfr, dhps, and pfatp6 mutations in P falciparum isolates obtained from children treated with artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine were determined. All 61 isolates had wild-type Pfatp6 263, 623, and 769 alleles, and 11(18%) had a single E431K substitution. Three additional selleck screening library mutations, E643Q, E432K, and E641Q, were detected. The results did not indicate any warning signal of serious concern (i.e., no parasites were seen with quintuple dhfr-dhps, DHFR Ile164Leu,

or pfatp6 mutations), as confirmed by the high clinical efficacy of artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Further studies are required to identify a molecular marker that reliably predicts artemisinin resistance.”
“Distribution and functional expression of P2X receptors were analyzed in mouse cerebellum axodendritic fibres, using different experimental approaches such as RT-PCR, western blot, immunochemistry, microfluorimetric experiments and exocytotic studies.\n\nRT-PCR and western blot demonstrated the presence of P2X1-4,7 subunits in both whole cerebellum and mouse cerebellar granule cultured neurons. Immunochemistry analysis of tissular and cellular location of P2X1-4,7 receptors confirmed their presence and unequal distribution between somas and axodendritic prolongations. Microfluorimetric experiments using a variety of modulators of the P2X selleckchem subunits revealed the presence of different functional P2X receptors in the axodendritic fibres. The use of the synthetic agonist alpha,beta-meATP and the antagonist Ip(5)I revealed the activation of functional P2X1 and P2X3 receptors. Responses mediated

by P2X1 subunits were also confirmed by using ZnSO(4). Activation of functional P2X4 receptors is observed when stimulated in the presence of ivermectin. Exocytotic studies confirmed the role of most P2X subunits in the activation of neurotransmitter release in axodendritic fibres from mouse cerebellar granule neurons. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Protein molecular BAY 73-4506 scaffolds are attracting interest as natural candidates for the presentation of enzymes and acceleration of catalytic reactions. We have previously reported evidence that the stable protein 1 (SP1) from Populus tremula can be employed as a molecular scaffold for the presentation of either catalytic or structural binding (cellulosomal cohesin) modules. In the present work, we have displayed a potent exoglucanase (Cel6B) from the aerobic cellulolytic bacterium, Thermobifida jusca, on a cohesin-bearing SP1 scaffold. For this purpose, a chimaeric form of the enzyme, fused to a cellulosomal dockerin module, was prepared.

Children were more likely than adults to undergo surgery (44% vs

Children were more likely than adults to undergo surgery (44% vs. 29% of trauma patients). To maximize hospital surge capacity, minor procedures were performed in the wards under sedation, and patients were discharged after an average of 1.4 days, with subsequent follow-up in the clinic.\n\nCONCLUSION: Children constitute a high percentage of patients in a developing country. The epidemiology of pediatric injuries following an earthquake differs significantly from that encountered in everyday practice and compared with that in adults. Children sustain a significantly higher percentage of femoral fractures and are more likely to Temsirolimus in vitro require surgery. The shift to nontraumatic

reasons for admission occurred earlier in the pediatric population than in adults. Organizations providing post-earthquake relief are usually geared toward adult populations and will require supplementation MK-8776 in vivo of both manpower and equipment specifically suited for treatment of pediatric patients. Early deployment teams should be adequately staffed with adult and pediatric orthopedists. (J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013;74: 617-621. Copyright (C) 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)”
“Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data allow spatially explicit (x, y, z) laser return intensities to be recorded throughout a plant canopy, which could considerably improve our understanding of how physiological

processes vary in three-dimensional space. However, the utility of TLS data for the quantification of plant physiological properties remains largely unexplored. Here, we test whether the laser return intensity of green (532-nm) TLS correlates with changes in the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle and photoprotective non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and compare the ability of TLS to quantify these parameters with the passively measured photochemical reflectance index (PRI). We exposed leaves from five plant species to increasing light

intensities to induce NPQ and de-epoxidation of violaxanthin (V) to antheraxanthin (A) and zeaxanthin (Z). At each light intensity, the green laser return intensity (GLRI), narrowband spectral reflectance, chlorophyll fluorescence emission and xanthophyll cycle pigment composition were recorded. Strong relationships between both predictor selleck variables (GLRI, PRI) and both explanatory variables (NPQ, xanthophyll cycle de-epoxidation) were observed. GLRI holds promise to provide detailed (mm) information about plant physiological status to improve our understanding of the patterns and mechanisms driving foliar photoprotection. We discuss the potential for scaling these laboratory data to three-dimensional canopy space.”
“We report the results of an attempt to identify the supposed remains of a famous World War I (WWI) Italian soldier who was killed in battle along the Italian front in 1915.