albicans (Fig. 5). The structural and bioimmunological analysis of Candida mannans has mostly been conducted using yeast cells form grown at 28 °C. Nevertheless, Candida cells become pathogenic and invade tissue in the hyphal form at 37 °C [30, 31]. Recently, it has been shown that presence of the α-1,6-linked branching
mannose residues in mannan structure is reduced in Candida hyphal form mannan . IgM and IgG antibodies levels induced by both conjugates immunization were slightly higher for hyphal morphological form of C. albicans (Fig. 5). Difference in α-1,6-linked branching presence in mannan of C. albicans yeast and hyphal form and detected antibody levels indicate that recognized antigenic determinants are α-1,6-linked branching independent. Palbociclib mw We can suppose that observed difference in induction of humoral immune response by M5-BSA and M6-BSA conjugates is less related to difference in oligomannoside length and is more related to structure diversity,
concretely branching difference at non-reducing end of oligomers. Generally, oligosaccharides of intermediate length are required for the carbohydrate components of conjugate vaccines to obtain conformation similar to CB-839 price its native state on the cell surface. In the case of β-1,2-linked mannooligomers, the size of the epitopes that are able to induce protective antibodies is 2 or 3 residues . We can suppose that dominant antigenic determinants of α-1,6-branched oligomannosides are not related
to branching site. In addition, whole cell ELISA assay reveal marked non-specific interaction of serum antibodies with Candida whole cells of both morphological forms. Determination of the source of non-specific interactions requires further investigation. IgGl and IgG2a subclass antibodies play a significant role in the opsonization either in the presence or absence of complement . A comparison of the levels of IgGl and IgG2a indicates poor correlation between the putative Th responses oxyclozanide initiated and mice strain susceptibility to infection . Experimental infection of BALB/c mice with low susceptibility to Candida infection produced increased levels of IgGl instead of IgG2a . By immunization with semi-synthetic oligomannoside-BSA conjugates M5-BSA and M6-BSA, we observed in agreement with mentioned report increase in IgG1 levels instead of IgG2a. The ability of immune sera to enhance the candidacidal activity of PMN was studied according to previously published candidacidal assay . The published observations of efficient yeast cells opsonophagocytosis revealed ability of mannan-specific antibodies alone to serve as sufficient opsonins . These results are supported by an earlier report of C. albicans yeast cells opsonophagocytic killing by human neutrophils induced by natural anti-mannan antibodies .