(C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“The evaluation

(C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The evaluation of species distribution models (SDMs) is a crucial step; usually, a random subsample of data is used to test prediction capacity. This procedure, called cross-validation, has been recently shown to overestimate SDMs performance due to spatial autocorrelation.

In the case of expanding species, there exists the possibility to test the predictions with non-random geographically structured data, i.e., a new data set which corresponds to the last occupied localities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of SDMs to predict the range expansion pattern of six free-living deer species in Great Britain and to assess whether SDMs perform better than a simple dispersal model – a null model that assumes no environmental control in the expansion process. Distribution data for the species prior to 1972 were used to train the SDMs (ENFA, selleck chemicals llc MAXENT, logistic regression and an ensemble model) in order to obtain suitability maps. Additionally, the geographical distance PI3K inhibitor to the localities occupied in 1972 was considered a proxy of the probability that a certain locality has to be occupied during an expansion process considering only dispersal (GD model). Subsequently, we analysed whether the species increased their ranges between 1972 and 2006 according to the estimated suitability patterns and whether or not SDMs

predictions outperformed GD predictions. SDMs showed a high discrimination capacity in the training data, with the ensemble models performing the best and ENFA models the worst. SDMs predictions ALK targets also worked better than chance in classifying new occupied localities,

although differences among techniques disappeared and the predictions showed no difference with respect to GD. Spatial autocorrelation of both the environmental predictors and the expansion process may explain these results which illustrate that GD is a much more parsimonious model than any of the SDMs and may thus be preferable both for prediction and explanation. Overestimation of SDMs performance and usefulness may be a common fact. Crown Copyright (c) 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: To describe the phenotype of three cases of Sjogren reticular dystrophy in detail, including high-resolution optical coherence tomography, autofluorescence imaging, and near-infrared reflectance imaging. Methods: Two unrelated teenagers were independently referred for ophthalmologic evaluation. Both underwent a full ophthalmologic workup, including electrophysiologic and extensive imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, autofluorescence imaging, and near-infrared reflectance imaging. In addition, mutation screening of ABCA4, PRPH2, and the mitochondrial tRNALeu gene was performed in Patient 1.

We investigate the mechanism by which anionic lipid vesicles indu

We investigate the mechanism by which anionic lipid vesicles induce aggregation of tau in vitro using

K18, a fragment of tau corresponding to the four repeats of the microtubule binding domain. Our results show that aggregation occurs when the amount of K18 bound to the lipid bilayer exceeds a critical surface density. The ratio of protein/lipid at the critical aggregation concentration is pH-dependent, as is the binding affinity. At low pH, where the protein selleck compound binds with high affinity, the critical surface density is independent both of total lipid concentration as well as the fraction of anionic lipid present in the bilayer. Furthermore, the aggregates consist of both protein and vesicles and bind the beta-sheet specific dye, Thioflavin T, in the manner characteristic of pathological aggregates. Our results suggest that the lipid bilayer facilitates protein-protein interactions both by screening charges on the protein and by increasing the local protein concentration, resulting in rapid aggregation. Because anionic lipids are abundant in cellular membranes, these findings contribute to understanding tau-lipid bilayer interactions that may be relevant to disease pathology.”
“Interaction of hematopoietic progenitors with the thymic microenvironment induces them to proliferate, adopt the T lineage fate,

and asymmetrically PXD101 supplier diverge into multiple functional lineages. Progenitors at various developmental stages are stratified within the thymus, implying that the corresponding microenvironments provide distinct sets of signals to progenitors migrating between them. These differences remain largely undefined. Here we used physical and computational approaches to generate a comprehensive spatial map of stromal gene expression selleck products in the thymus. Although most stromal regions were characterized by a unique gene expression signature, the central cortex lacked distinctive features. Instead, a key function of this region appears to be the sequestration of unique microenvironments found at the

cortical extremities, thus modulating the relative proximity of progenitors moving between them. Our findings compel reexamination of how cell migration, lineage specification, and proliferation are controlled by thymic architecture and provide an in-depth resource for global characterization of this control.”
“Real-time RT-PCR is used to quantify individual influenza viral RNAs. However, conventional real-time RTPCR, using strand-specific primers, has been shown to produce not only the anticipated strand-specific products, but also substantial amounts of non-strand-specific products, indicating lack of specificity. Therefore, in this study, a novel strand-specific real-time RT-PCR method was established to quantify the three types of influenza viral RNA (vRNA, cRNA, and mRNA) separately. This method is based on reverse transcription using tagged primers to add a ‘tag’ sequence at the 5′ end and the hot-start method.

We found no cases of mycobacteremia among 93 ill, HIV-infected ch

We found no cases of mycobacteremia among 93 ill, HIV-infected children in northern Tanzania, despite optimization of laboratory methods and selection of patients thought to be at highest risk for disseminated infection.”
“The generation of nephrons during development depends on differentiation via a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) of self-renewing, tissue-specific stem cells confined to a specific anatomic niche of the nephrogenic cortex. These cells may transform to generate oncogenic stem cells and drive pediatric renal cancer. Once nephron epithelia are formed the view of post-MET tissue renal

growth and maintenance by adult tissue-specific epithelial stem cells becomes controversial. Recently, genetic lineage tracing that followed clonal evolution of single Autophagy inhibitor in vivo kidney cells showed that the need for new cells is constantly driven by fate-restricted unipotent clonal expansions in varying kidney segments arguing against a multipotent adult stem cell model. Adriamycin manufacturer Lineage-restriction was similarly maintained in kidney organoids grown in culture. Importantly, kidney cells in which Wnt was activated were traced to give significant clonal progeny indicating a clonogenic hierarchy. In vivo nephron epithelia may be endowed with the capacity akin to that of unipotent epithelial stem/progenitor such that under specific stimuli can clonally expand/self renew by

local proliferation of mature differentiated cells. Finding ways to ex vivo preserve and expand the observed in vivo kidney-forming capacity inherent to both the fetal and adult kidneys is crucial for taking renal regenerative medicine forward. Some of the strategies used to achieve this are sorting

human fetal nephron stem/progenitor cells, growing adult nephrospheres or reprogramming differentiated kidney cells toward expandable renal AZD1208 progenitors. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Lactate, a product of glycolysis, has been shown to play a key role in the metabolic support of neurons/axons in the CNS by both astrocytes and oligodendrocytes through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Despite such importance in the CNS, little is known about MCT expression and lactate function in the PNS. Here we show that mouse MCT1, MCT2, and MCT4 are expressed in the PNS. While DRG neurons express MCT1, myelinating Schwann cells (SCs) coexpress MCT1 and MCT4 in a domain-specific fashion, mainly in regions of noncompact myelin. Interestingly, SC-specific downregulation of MCT1 expression in rat neuron/SC cocultures led to increased myelination, while its downregulation in neurons resulted in a decreased amount of neurofilament. Finally, pure rat SCs grown in the presence of lactate exhibited an increase in the level of expression of the main myelin regulator gene Krox20/Egr2 and the myelin gene P0.

Repeated, but not single, administration of SB 269970 decreased t

Repeated, but not single, administration of SB 269970 decreased the maximum density of [H-3]-SB 269970 binding sites. While administration of imipramine did signaling pathway not change the expression of mRNAs for G alpha(s) and G alpha(12) proteins after both single and repeated administration of SB 269970, a reduction in G alpha(s) and G alpha(12) mRNA expression levels was evident.\n\nConclusions: These findings indicate that even single administration of SB269970 induces functional desensitization of the 5-HT7 receptor system, which precedes changes in the receptor density. This mechanism may be responsible for the rapid antidepressant-like effect of the 5-HT7 antagonist in animal models.”
“OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this paper is to describe the incidence of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness in the last functioning treatment centre in Buikwe South HSD in Southeast Uganda, in Mukono District, for a 19-year period selleck screening library (1989-2008). This is a report on the treatment outcome, structure of population affected, comparison with the published data on general incidence of T. b rhodesiensae in Uganda and functioning of sleeping sickness control program.\n\nMETHODS: Cross-sectional sleeping sickness data from 1989 to 2008 were collected retrospectively in 2009

at Buikwe Sleeping Sickness Center to identify case counts and measures of disease magnitude per sub-county per year. Data were collected from all available records of sleeping sickness patients. Case counts from the Buikwe South sub-counties, and even some neighboring sub-counties for 19 years (1989-2008) were collected and analyzed

by Microsoft Excel and EpiInfo program.\n\nRESULTS: In the period from 1989 to 2008, 372 cases of sleeping sickness were diagnosed and treated. Children under 5 years were 12 (3.22%) – males 6, females 6, patients in the age from 6 to 15 years were 51 (13.7%) – males 30, females 21, and patients above 15 were 309 (83.06%) – males 176, females 133. In the category 5-15 years and above 15 years there was a Akt assay significant gender difference closely connected to the professional exposure. The oldest patient was 80 years old, the youngest was 3 moths old. The average age of the patients was 30.8 years. From all 372 patients with trypanosomiasis 30 had died – 10 females and 20 males, which means 8% case fatality. The case fatality rate in the late stage of the disease was 14%. From this group 6 patients (20%) had negative BS. The average interval between the diagnosis and death was 14.4 days, in 10 patients the exact date of death was not recorded. Average age of the patients that died was 30.6 years.\n\nCONCLUSION: Sleeping sickness still remains a serious public health problem. Since the preventive and educational activities for the control of this neglected disease are not functioning, it very easily can re-emerge.

Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism (2011) 31, 1908-1918;

Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism (2011) 31, 1908-1918; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2011.60; published online 11 May 2011″
“Background: Palliative care should be provided, irrespective of setting to all patients facing a life-threatening GDC-0973 molecular weight illness and to their families. The situation and needs of order people differ from those of younger people since they often have several co-existing diseases and health complaints. This implies an extensive need for care and for longer periods of palliative care. The main providers of palliative care for older people are nurse assistants, who are also those with the shortest education.\n\nAim: The aim of this

study was to illuminate nurse assistants’ experience of palliative care for older people in residential care.\n\nDesign: The study had an explorative, descriptive design.\n\nSettings: Thirteen residential care units click here in three different districts in a large city in southern Sweden.\n\nParticipants: Twenty-five nurse assistants selected to represent variations in age, gender workplace and work experience.\n\nMethods: Data were collected from six focus-group interviews and subjected to content analysis to gain an understanding of the phenomenon.\n\nResults: The nurse assistants described palliative

care as a contrast to the everyday care they performed in that they had a legitimate possibility to provide the care needed and a clear assignment in relation to relatives. Palliative care also meant having to face death and dying while feeling simultaneous that it was unnatural to talk about death and having to deal with their own emotions. They emphasised that they were in need of support and experienced leadership as invisible and opaque, but gained strength from being recognized.\n\nConclusion: In order to support nurse assistants in providing high quality end-of-life care, more focus is needed on the trajectory of older peoples’ dying, on the importance of involving relatives throughout the period of care

provision, and on support when encountering death and dying. There is also a need for engaged care leaders, both registered nurses and managers, to recognize the work of nurse assistants and to support care provision for older people within the framework of palliative care philosophy. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Eukaryotic learn more protein kinases (ePKs) evolved as a family of highly dynamic molecular switches that serve to orchestrate the activity of almost all cellular processes. Some of the functionally characterized ePKs from plants have been found to be components of signaling networks, such as those for the perception of biotic agents, light quality and quantity, plant hormones, and various adverse environmental conditions. To date, only a tiny fraction of plant ePKs have been functionally identified, and even fewer have been identified in maize [Zea mays (Zm)]. In this study, we have identified 1,241 PK-encoding genes in the maize genome.

The most notable differences were that NSCLC patients were older,

The most notable differences were that NSCLC patients were older, BC younger, BC had more primary

tumor control, and NSCLC less extracranial spread. BLZ945 BC had longer survival, RCC had longer local progression free survival (PFS), and NSCLC had longer distal PFS. The factors independently associated with survival for NSCLC (female, recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class, primary tumor control, solitary metastasis, tumor size, adenocarcinoma, radiation, discharge to home), BC (age, no skull base involvement, radiation), GI cancer (age, RPA class, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS), lack of preoperative motor deficit, non-esophageal tumors, non-hemorrhagic tumors, avoidance of new deficits), melanoma (preoperative seizures, solitary metastasis, smaller tumor size, discharge to home, chemotherapy), and RCC (KPS, chemotherapy) were distinctly different.\n\nDiscussion: These differences between patients with different primary cancers support the fact that patients with intracranial disease are not all the same and should JNK-IN-8 manufacturer be studied by their primary pathology.”
“Eutrophication is a world-wide environmental

issue. The Palic Lake is a shallow lake typical for the Pannonian plain. The Lake itself was in a very bad condition during the late sixties of the last century; polluted and hypertrophic. Due to inadequate water quality, it was dried out in 1971 and re-established in 1977 and since then its trophicity has been worsening. The lake has recreational

MK-2206 inhibitor purposes but it is also a collector for treated municipal waste waters coming from the lagoons for active sludge water treatment. The sewage discharges from rapidly developing towns in the watershed and the growing use of fertilizers in agriculture increased the nutrient load to the Lake in the last decades. A steady increase of phosphorus loading is the most important factor of the lake eutrophication. The result of the accelerated eutrophication is the enormous amount of sediment at the bottom of the Palic Lake. Therefore, in the lake that covers an area of 565 ha and volume of 10 million m(3), there was 1.900.160 m(3) of sediment. The sediment thickness varied from 0.3 to 1.2 m. In summer 2010, the recreational part of the lake (sector IV) was 1.311.356 m(3) of sediment, characterized with concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) of 2885 mg/kg, 4300 mg/ kg total nitrogen (TN) and 39000 mg/ kg total organic carbon TOC. The sediment of the Palic Lake was not loaded with high concentrations of heavy metals. Everything mentioned supports the fact that the restoration of this aquatic system is necessary and applied measures have to be grounded on the principles of ecoremediation technologies.”
“Polymeric copper(II) complex, [Cu(Hacm)(2)(na)(2)(H2O)(2)] [H(2)acm: acetazolamide, na; nicotinamide] was synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic (IR; infrared spectroscopy, EPR: electron paramagnetic resonance), structural (XRD) and voltammetric structural (CV) methods.

Frailty risk factors for each patient were collected at three dif

Frailty risk factors for each patient were collected at three different times over the period

of a year. In the first study, data from the group of patients were used to determine the frailty state of a new incoming patient. The results were valuable for determining the degree of frailty of a specific patient in relation to other patients in an elderly population. The most representative similarity degrees were between 73.4% and 71.6% considering 61 frailty factors from 64 patient instances. Additionally, from the provided results, a physician could group the elders by their degree of similarity influencing their Quizartinib cost care and treatment. In the second study, the same mobile tool was used to analyze the frailty syndrome Epoxomicin cell line from a nutritional

viewpoint on 10 patients of the initial group during 1 year. Data were acquired at three different times, corresponding to three assessments: initial, spontaneous, and after protein supplementation. The subsequent analysis revealed a general deterioration of the subset of elders from the initial assessment to the spontaneous assessment and also an improvement of biochemical and anthropometric parameters in men and women from the spontaneous assessment to the assessment after the administration of a protein supplement.\n\nConclusions: The problem of creating a general frailty index is still unsolved. However, in recent years, there has been an increase in the amount of research on this subject. Our studies took advantage of mobile device features (accelerometer sensors, wireless communication capabilities, and processing capacities among others) to develop a new method that achieves an objective assessment of frailty based on similarity results for an elderly population, providing an essential support for physicians.”
“Spontaneous pacemakery-aminobutyric buy Dinaciclib acid (GABA) receptor-mediated synaptic activity (PGA) occurs in a subset of tissue samples from pediatric epilepsy surgery patients. In the present study, based on single-cell electrophysiological recordings from 120 cases, we describe the etiologies, cell types, and primary electrophysiological features of PGA. Cells displaying PGA

occurred more frequently in the areas &greatest anatomical abnormality in cases of focal cortical dysplasia (CD), often associated with hemimegalencephaly (HME), and only rarely in nonCD etiologies. PGA was characterized by rhythmic synaptic events (5-10 Hz) and was observed in normal-like, dysmorphic cytomegalic, and immature pyramidal neurons. PGA was action potential-dependent, mediated by GABAA receptors, and unaffected by antagonism of glutamate receptors. We propose that PGA is a unique electrophysiological characteristic associated with CD and HME. It could represent an abnormal signal that may contribute to epileptogenesis in malformed postnatal cortex by facilitating pyramidal neuron synchrony. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

The E coil JM109 transformant harbouring phaCAB(Co) could accumu

The E. coil JM109 transformant harbouring phaCAB(Co) could accumulate P(3HB) at 2 g/L of propionic acid. P(3HB) contents of 40.9% and 43.6% were achieved by using 1% of glucose and mixed organic acids, respectively. (C) 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“The relationship between salt intake and adequate blood pressure control is not well investigated

in Korea populations, especially in patients with cardiovascular disease. This cross-sectional Selleckchem Navitoclax study enrolled 19,083 subjects who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2009-2011. The amount of salt intake was estimated using the Tanaka equations based on spot urine samples. Comparing patients with and without cardiovascular disease, systolic blood pressure (129.1 +/- 18.1 mmHg vs. 120.0 +/- 18.1 mmHg, P smaller than 0.001) and the amount of urinary sodium excretion (149.4 +/- 37.5 Stattic inhibitor mM/day vs. 144.1 +/- 36.2 mM/day, P smaller than 0.001) were higher in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Among patients with cardiovascular disease, the high blood pressure group showed an increased amount of urinary sodium excretion compared to the normal blood pressure group (155.5

+/- 38.2 vs. 146.6 +/- 36.9 mM/day, P smaller than 0.001). The odds ratio (OR) of high blood pressure was higher (OR, 1.825; 95% CI, 1.187-2.807; P-for-trend 0.003, highest quartile of urinary sodium excretion vs. lowest quartile) in patients with cardiovascular

disease. A higher amount of urinary sodium excretion was associated with a lower rate of adequate blood pressure control in Korean population, especially with cardiovascular disease.”
“An accurate and validated liquid chromatography method and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method were developed and validated for determination of tacrolimus and cyclosporine A in human whole blood. Whole blood samples were prepared by precipitating protein with acetonitrile after adding ZnSO4. The analytes were separated using a reversed-phase BEH C18 column (2.1 x 50 mm, 1.7 mu m, Waters, USA) maintained at 60 degrees C. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and water (both containing 10 mM ammonium acetate by adding 0.1% formic acid) with a gradient elution pumped at a flow humane of 0.4 mL/min. The analytes were detected Chk inhibitor with positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode for target fragment ions m/z 822.36 – bigger than 769.37 for tacrolimus, m/z 1220.95 – bigger than 1203.74 for cyclosporine A and m/z 285.1 – bigger than 193.1 for diazepam (IS). Good linearity was achieved to quantify the concentration ranges of 0.5-10 ng/mL for tacrolimus and 10-500 ng/mL for cyclosporine A in human whole blood. The mean recoveries of tacrolimus and cyclosporine A from the whole blood exceeded 75.58%. The intra-run and inter-run assay precisions of tacrolimus and cyclosporine A were both less than 8.9%.

Treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) blunted

Treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) blunted the increase in Zn(2+) levels and reduced LC3-II conversion, cathepsin D release and cell death induced by tamoxifen. And JNJ-26481585 inhibitor cathepsin inhibitors attenuated cell death, indicating that LMP contributes to tamoxifen-induced cell death. Moreover, TPEN blocked tamoxifen-induced cathepsin D release and increase in oxidative stress. The present results indicate that Zn(2+) contributes to tamoxifen-induced autophagic cell death via increase in oxidative stress and induction of LMP.”
“Owing to their crucial role in the modulation of cell pathways,

protein kinases are important targets for several human diseases, including but not limited to cancer. The classic approach of targeting the ATP active site has recently come up against selectivity issues, which can be considerably reduced by following an allosteric modulation approach. Being closely related to protein kinase inactivation, allosteric targeting APR-246 manufacturer via displacement of the conserved structural alpha C helix enables a direct and specific modulation mechanism. A structure-based survey

of the allosteric regulation of alpha C helix conformation in various kinase families is provided, highlighting key allosteric pockets and modulation mechanisms that appear to be more broadly conserved than was previously thought.”
“Serological analyses within epidemiological cohort and case-control studies indicate to an association GSK2245840 clinical trial between HBV infection and risk of multiple myeloma (MM). To verify the relationship with an independent approach, we investigated the correlation between HBV positivity and chromosomal aberrations within 680 patients of the National Center for Tumor Diseases Heidelberg for which the serological HBV status (HBsAg and anti-HBc) and FISH data for five gains (1q21, 9q34, 11q23, 15q22, 19q13), five losses (6q21, 8p21, 13q14, 17p13, 22q11), and three IgH translocations [t(4,14), t(11,14), t(14,16)] were available. Deletion of

8p21 and 13q14 were shown associated with HBV positivity within hepatocellular carcinoma in other investigations. In the present evaluation, the odds ratio for loss of 8p21 was significantly elevated (OR=2.74, 95% CL=1.365.50, P=0.0048) and for loss of 13q14 non-significantly increased (OR=1.40, 95% CL=0.742.65) in anti-HBc positive patients. The results provide further support for a role of HBV infection in the pathogenesis of MM.”
“The lymphatic system, also named the second vascular system, plays a critical role in tissue homeostasis and immunosurveillance. The past two decades of intensive research have led to the identification and detailed understanding of many molecular players and mechanisms regulating the formation of the lymphatic vasculature during embryonic development.

We used the median as the point estimate and the 2 5th and 97 5th

We used the median as the point estimate and the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles as the confidence interval. We compared case-chaos matched odds ratios with their respective case-control odds ratios in terms of statistical significance. Using Spearman’s correlation, we estimated the correlation between matched odds ratios and the proportion of cases exposed to each exposure and quantified the relationship between the 2 using a normal linear mixed model. Each case-control study identified an outbreak vehicle (odds ratios = 4.9-45).

Case-chaos methodology identified the outbreak vehicle 3 out of 5 times. It identified significant associations in 22 selleck products of 113 exposures that were not associated with outcome and 5 of 18 exposures that were significantly associated with outcome. Log matched odds ratios correlated with their respective proportion of cases exposed (Spearman rho = 0.91) and increased significantly with the proportion of cases exposed (b = 0.054). Case-chaos methodology missed the outbreak source 2 of 5 times and identified spurious associations between a number of exposures and outcome. Measures of association correlated with the proportion of cases exposed. We recommended against using case-chaos analysis during outbreak investigations.”
“FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYLS3 (FHY3) and FAR-RED-IMPAIRED RESPONSE1 (FARM initially identified as crucial components of phytochrome

A (phyA)-mediated far-red (FR) light signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana, are the founding members of the FAR1-related sequence (FRS) family Ro-3306 mouse of transcription factors present in most angiosperms. These proteins share extensive similarity with the Mutator-like transposases, indicative of their evolutionary history of ‘molecular

domestication’. Here we review emerging multifaceted roles of FHY3/FAR1 in diverse developmental and physiological processes, including UV-B signaling, circadian clock entrainment, flowering, chloroplast biogenesis, chlorophyll biosynthesis, programmed cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, and branching. The domestication of FHY3/FAR1 may enable angiosperms to better integrate various endogenous and exogenous signals for coordinated regulation of growth and development, thus enhancing their SC79 molecular weight fitness and adaptation.”
“The role of human Fc gamma receptors (Fc gamma R) has been recognized considerably over the last years. These receptors vary in their affinity for IgG subclasses and the intracellular signals elicited by them. Allelic variants of Fc gamma R genes may influence the biological phagocyte activity, accounting for an inherited pre-disposition to disease. The specific Fc gamma RIIa (CD32) contains a polymorphic variant (H/R131) that has been associated to a reduced risk for developing dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF).