To conclude, within one eating episode, within-meal protein conte

To conclude, within one eating episode, within-meal protein content in these quantities seems not to have an effect on subsequent food choice. This appears to Autophagy Compound Library research buy be mostly determined by taste, whereby savoury taste exerts the strongest modulating effect. The results of the LFPQ provided insight into underlying processes.”
“Among the different experimental

methods that can be used to quantify the evolution of drug crystallinity in polymer-containing amorphous solid dispersions, powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) is commonly considered as a frontline method. In order to achieve accurate quantification of the percent drug crystallinity in the system, calibration curves have to be constructed using appropriate calibration samples and calculation methods. This can be non-trivial click here in the case of partially crystalline solid dispersions where the calibration samples must capture the multiphase nature of the systems and the mathematical model must be robust enough to accommodate subtle and not so subtle changes in the diffractograms. The purpose of this study was to compare two different calculation and model-building methods

to quantify the proportion of crystalline drug in amorphous solid dispersions containing different ratios of drug and amorphous polymer. The first method involves predicting the % drug crystallinity from the ratio of the area underneath the Bragg peaks to total area of the diffractogram. The second method is multivariate analysis using a Partial Least-Squares (PLS) multivariate regression method. It was found that PLS analysis provided far better accuracy and prediction of % drug crystallinity in the sample. Through the application of PLS, root-mean-squared error of estimation (RMSEE) values of 2.2%, 1.9%, and 4.7% drug crystallinity was achieved for samples containing 25%, 50%, and 75% polymer, respectively, compared to values of 11.2%, 17.0%, and 23.6% for the area model. In addition, construction of a PLS model enables further analysis of the data, including identification of outliers Selleck Compound Library and non-linearity in the data, as well as insight into which factors are most important to correlate PXRD diffractograms

with % crystallinity of the drug through analysis of the loadings. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We assessed several circulating proteins as candidate biomarkers of bone status in men with chronic spinal cord injury. We report that sclerostin is significantly associated with bone mineral content and bone density at all skeletal sites tested. We found no association between bone and any other tested biomarker.\n\nSpinal cord injury results in severe osteoporosis. To date, no circulating biomarker of spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced osteoporosis has been identified. We recently reported that circulating sclerostin is associated with bone density in chronic SCI. In this study, we assessed several circulating proteins as candidate biomarkers of bone in men with chronic SCI.

A clear demonstration of acidification can be found in yogurt, th

A clear demonstration of acidification can be found in yogurt, the product of milk fermentation by the LAB Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) and Streptococcus thermophilus, where the pH falls to 4.2. Acid adaptation therefore plays an important role in the physiology of LAB. Here we present the results of a proteomic approach to reveal cellular changes associated with acid adaptation in L. bulgaricus. These results were complemented with transcription data for selected genes to show three major effects: (i) induction of the chaperones GroES, GroEL, HrcA, GrpE, DnaK, DnaJ, ClpE, ClpP, and ClpL, and the repression of ClpC; (ii)

induction of genes involved H 89 cell line in the biosynthesis of fatty acids (fabH, accC, fabI); (iii) repression of genes involved in the

mevalonate pathway of isoprenoid synthesis (mvaC, mvaS). Together with changes in the expression of other genes from the local metabolic network, these results for the first time show a coherent picture of changes in gene expression expected to result in a rerouting of pyruvate metabolism to favor fatty acid biosynthesis, and thereby affect membrane fluidity.”
“An efficient and improved shoot regeneration technique for the micropropagation of Withania somnifera L. through in vitro culture of nodal segments with axillary buds using thidiazuron (TDZ) is developed. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing TDZ (0.0 to 10.0 mu M) was effective in inducing shoot buds and maintaining AZD8055 high rates of shoot multiplication and subsequent elongation on hormone free MS medium. TDZ at a concentration of 0.5 mu M was found to be most effective in bud break and also produced maximum regeneration frequency (98%), number of shoots (23.8 +/- 0.33) with shoot length

of (4.83 +/- 0.66 cm), after 4 weeks of culture. Such proliferating shoots when sub-cultured on MS media devoid of TDZ, showed the highest number (32.4 +/- 0.24) of shoots and shoot length (7.66 +/- 0.08 click here cm) at the end of fourth subculture passage. Among the different concentrations of Indole- 3-butyric acid (IBA) (50 to 500 mu M) tested, the maximum percentage of rooting 100% in vitro regenerated microshoots was achieved in soilrite when basal portion of the microshoots were treated with 200 mu M (IBA) for 15 min, which induced maximum roots (18.3 +/- 0.16) with root length of (7.63 +/- 0.08 cm) per shoot. The plantlets went through hardening phase in a growth chamber, prior to ex vitro transfer. Micropropagated plants grew well, attained maturity and flowered normally. The present regeneration process favoured large-scale multiplication and long-term in vitro conservation of W. somnifera.”
“This note deals with the influence of debris accumulation on scour around bridge piers. Clear-water experiments in different hydraulic conditions have been carried out with three wood debris shapes: rectangular, triangular, and cylindrical.

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs

are inte

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs

are interesting agents in experimental oncology and stem cells are discussed to be a potential vehicle for NPs to tumor sites. However, little is known about hazardous effects of NPs in hMSC. The aim of the present study was to analyze functional impairment of hMSC by ZnO- and TiO2-NPs. Cytotoxic effects of NPs were evaluated by the MTT-assay. Furthermore, multi-differentiation capacity, spheroid formation and migration were assessed. The immunophenotype was observed by flow cytometry. Cytotoxic effects Liproxstatin-1 molecular weight were observed at 625 nM ZnO-NPs whereas no cytotoxicity was seen in hMSC by TiO2-NPs. The differentiation capacity of hMSC into osteogenic and adipose lineages was unchanged. A long-term period cultivation of hMSC for 3 weeks after NP exposure revealed a persistence of NPs in the cytoplasm. The migration capability was impaired whereas the ability to form spheroids was not affected. Flow cytometric analysis revealed distinct alteration of cell surface markers CD 90 and CD 73. Major functional properties of hMSC were unaffected by TiO2- and ZnO-NPs. However, restricted migration might critically Alvocidib research buy influence wound healing capacity. Further information is needed to assess the clinical impact of

these findings.”
“Relapsing fever (RF) is caused by tick-and louse-borne Borrelia spp., is characterized by recurrent fever, and is often misdiagnosed Navitoclax as malaria. Because of submicroscopic bacteremia, microscopy can be insensitive

between febrile bouts. We designed a multiplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to distinguish RF Borrelia from Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. The assay specifically (100%) amplified pathogenic RF Borrelia (1 copy/reaction). We then tested blood from participants within a Tanzanian cohort assessed at scheduled intervals and with fever. Among 8,617 blood samples from 2,057 participants surveyed routinely, 7 (0.08%) samples and 7 (0.3%) participants had RF DNA (median, 4.4 x 10(3) copies/ml). Of 382 samples from 310 febrile persons, 15 (3.9%) samples from 13 (4.2%) participants had RF DNA (median, 7.9 x 10(2) copies/ml). Five (1.3%) samples from 4 (1.3%) participants were found to harbor Borrelia by microscopy. We conclude that multiplex qPCR holds promise for improved clinical diagnosis and epidemiologic assessment of RF.”
“Transferrin and transferrin receptor are two key proteins of iron metabolism that have been identified to be hypoxia-inducible genes. Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) is also a key transporter of iron under physiological conditions. In addition, in the 5′ regulatory region of human DMT1 (between -412 and -570), there are two motifs (CCAAAGTGCTGGG) that are similar to hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) binding sites. It was therefore speculated that DMT1 might also be a hypoxia-inducible gene.


“Thermal and photochemical reactions of [email protected] with 2-a


“Thermal and photochemical reactions of [email protected] with 2-admantane-2,3-[3H]-diazirine AZD9291 chemical structure are investigated. Four isomers of the monoadcluct

([email protected](78)Ad) synthesized by the photoreaction are isolated by HPLC and characterized by mass, UV-vis-NIR absorption, cyclic voltammogram and differential pulse voltammogram spectroscopy, proton and C-13 NMR spectroscopic analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and theoretical approaches. The addition reactions occur at both the [5,6] and [6,6] positions. X-ray and theoretical studies indicate that one of the monoadduct isomers has an open structure with two La atoms on the C-3 axis of the D-3h cage of [email protected]
“Much

of the geriatric imperative that is facing providers in the United States is an ethnogeriatric imperative, because one-third of older Americans are projected to be from one of the minority populations by mid-century, and that vastly underrepresents the actual diversity providers will see. Because of the vast heterogeneity of culture, language, health beliefs, risk for disease, and other factors, it is important IWR-1-endo cell line for policy makers and health providers to be familiar with the diverse characteristics and needs of the various groups that will need geriatric care if they are to receive effective services. Challenges to high-quality ethnogeriatric care include disparities in health status and health care, differences of acculturation level and other characteristics within the populations, language and limited English proficiency, health literacy, culturally defined health beliefs and syndromes, and specific beliefs and preferences about long-term and end-of-life care. Some models of successful ethnogeriatric care have been identified and have in common the involvement of members of the target population

in the development and design of the services and the use of cultural liaisons from the ethnic KU 57788 community being served, such as community health workers, or promatores. Thirteen recommendations are suggested for policy and practice changes in multiethnic and ethnic-specific health programs to provide competent ethnogeriatric care in the U.S. healthcare system.”
“Osteoarthritis is a major musculoskeletal cause of disability in the elderly, but current therapeutic approaches are insufficient to prevent initiation and progression of the disease. Genetic studies in humans have identified molecules involved in signalling cascades that are important for the pathology of the joint components. These include the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling, the wingless-type signalling and the thyroid pathway as well as apoptotic-related molecules.

Secreted MIC-1 cytokine, like the TGF-beta prototypic member of t

Secreted MIC-1 cytokine, like the TGF-beta prototypic member of the superfamily, may provide pleiotropic roles in the Navitoclax price early and late stages of carcinogenesis. In particular, MIC-1 may contribute to the proliferation, migration, invasion, metastases, and

treatment resistance of cancer cells as well as tumor-induced anorexia and weight loss in the late stages of cancer. Thus, secreted MIC-1 cytokine constitutes a new potential biomarker and therapeutic target of great clinical interest for the development of novel diagnostic and prognostic methods and/or cancer treatment against numerous metastatic, recurrent, and lethal cancers. J. Cell. Physiol. 224: 626-63.5,2010. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“The Stattic chemical structure evolution of the biogenic amine signalling system in vertebrates is unclear. However, insights can be obtained from studying the structures and signalling properties of biogenic amine receptors from the protochordate, amphioxus, which is an invertebrate species that exists at the base of the chordate lineage. Here we describe the signalling properties of AmphiAmR11, an amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) G protein-coupled

receptor which has structural similarities to vertebrate alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors but which functionally acts as a D-2 dopamine-like receptor when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary -K1 cells. AmphiAmR11 inhibits forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP levels with tyramine, phenylethylamine and dopamine being the most potent agonists. AmphiAmR11 also increases mitogen-activated Selleck LY2606368 protein kinase activity and calcium mobilisation, and in both pathways, dopamine was found to be more potent than

tyramine. Thus, differences in the relative effectiveness of various agonists in the different second messenger assay systems suggest that the receptor displays agonist-specific coupling (biased agonism) whereby different agonists stabilize different conformations of the receptor which lead to the enhancement of one signalling pathway over another. The present study provides insights into the evolution of alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor signalling and support the hypothesis that alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors evolved from D-2-dopamine receptors. The AmphiAmR11 receptor may represent a transition state between D-2-dopamine receptors and alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors.”
“Background. Supratentorial diffuse low-grade gliomas in adults extend beyond maximal visible MRI-defined abnormalities, and a gap exists between the imaging signal changes and the actual tumor margins. Direct quantitative comparisons between imaging and histological analyses are lacking to date. However, they are of the utmost importance if one wishes to develop realistic models for diffuse glioma growth.\n\nMethods.


“The uniform-sized manganese oxide nanoparticles (the olei


“The uniform-sized manganese oxide nanoparticles (the oleic-capped MnO NPs) were synthesized by the thermal decomposition of Mn-oleate complex and were transferred into water with the help of cationic surfactant of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), then the poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) membrane was further coated on to them with the aid of anionic dispersant

of poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) by layer-by-layer electrostatic assembly to render them water soluble and biocompatible. They were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and MIT assay. In vitro cellular uptake test revealed the [email protected] AZD1480 clinical trial NPs were low cytotoxic, biocompatible and could be used as a T-1-positive contrast agent for passive targeting magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Interestingly,

signal enhancement in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) spaces in vivo experiment suggested that the [email protected] NPs can pass through the blood brain barrier (BBB). These results show that [email protected] Selleckchem NVP-HSP990 NPs are good candidates as MRI contrast agents with the lack of cytotoxicity and have great potential applications in magnetic nano-device and biomagnetic field.”
“The Amino acid-Polyamine-Organocation (APC) superfamily is the main family of amino acid transporters found in all domains of life and one of the largest families of secondary transporters. Here, using a sensitive homology threading approach and modelling we show that the predicted structure of APC members is extremely

similar to the crystal structures of several prokaryotic transporters belonging AG-14699 to evolutionary distinct protein families with different substrate specificities. All of these proteins, despite having no primary amino acid sequence similarity, share a similar structural core, consisting of two V-shaped domains of five transmembrane domains each, intertwined in an antiparallel topology. Based on this model, we reviewed available data on functional mutations in bacterial, fungal and mammalian APCs and obtained novel mutational data, which provide compelling evidence that the amino acid binding pocket is located in the vicinity of the unwound part of two broken helices, in a nearly identical position to the structures of similar transporters. Our analysis is fully supported by the evolutionary conservation and specific amino acid substitutions in the proposed substrate binding domains. Furthermore, it allows predictions concerning residues that might be crucial in determining the specificity profile of APC members. Finally, we show that two cytoplasmic loops constitute important functional elements in APCs.

Every round was screened by phage selection and/or ELISA for decr

Every round was screened by phage selection and/or ELISA for decreased interaction with human IgG and retained C5aR binding. The mean binding of human anti-CHIPS IgG decreased with every round of evolution. For further optimization, new amino acid substitutions were introduced by rational design, based on the mutations identified during

directed evolution. Finally, seven CHIPS variants with low interaction with human IgG and retained C5aR blocking capacity could be identified.”
“Randomized Trial of ICE During CTI Ablation. Introduction: Despite a high success rate, radio-frequency ablation (RFA) of the cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) can be unusually challenging in some cases. We postulated that visualization of the CTI with intracardiac C59 echocardiography YH25448 order (ICE) could maximize the succes rate, decrease the procedure and ablation time, and minimize the radiation exposure. Methods and Results: In our prospective, randomized study, we included 102 patients scheduled for CTI ablation. We randomized patients in 2 groups: guided only by fluoroscopy (n = 52) or ICE-guided (n = 50) group. Procedure time, fluoroscopy time, and the time spent for RFA were significantly shorter, radiation exposure (dose-area product-DAP) and the sum of delivered radio frequency energy were significantly lower in the ICE-group (68.06 +/- 15.09 minutes vs 105.94 +/- 36.51

minutes, P < 0.001, 5.54 +/- 3.77 minutes vs 18.63 +/- 10.60 minutes, P < 0.001, 3-deazaneplanocin A Epigenetics inhibitor 482.80 +/- 534.12 seconds vs 779.76 +/- 620.82 seconds, P = 0.001 and 397.62 +/- 380.81 cGycm2 vs 1,312.92 +/- 1,129.28 cGycm2, P < 0.001,

10,866.84 +/- 6,930.84 Ws vs 16,393.56 +/- 13,995.78 Ws, P = 0.048, respectively). Seven patients (13%) from the fluoroscopy-only group crossed over to ICE-guidance because of prolonged unsuccessful RFA and were all treated successfully. Four vascular complications and 2 recurrences were equally distributed between the 2 groups. Conclusions: ICE-guided ablation of the CTI significantly shortens the procedure and fluoroscopy time, markedly decreases radiation exposure, and time spent for ablation in comparison with fluoroscopy-only procedures. At the same time, visualization with ICE allowed successful ablation in challenging cases. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 23, pp. 996-1000, September 2012)”
“Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is a well recognized corneal disorder characterized by the presence of collagenous warts extending from Descemet membrane (guttae) and endothelial cellular dysfunction due to cell loss and/or degeneration. Because of the characteristic abnormal cell morphology as seen with specular microscopy as well as the limited regenerative capacity in vivo, the endothelial cells were considered to be ‘dystrophic’.

The pedigree contained individuals diagnosed with both cutaneous

The pedigree contained individuals diagnosed with both cutaneous and iris melanoma. Based

on co-segregation analysis, the odds of these OCA2 variants being high penetrance loci for melanoma was: 1.3-to-1 if we include the iris melanoma as affected and 6.5-to-1 if we only consider cutaneous melanoma as affected.\n\nConclusion: The discovery of this novel OCA2 variant adds to the body of evidence on the detrimental effects of OCA2 gene mutations on pigmentation, supports existing GWAS data on the relevance of the OCA2 gene in melanoma predisposition, and may ultimately assist in the development of targeted molecular therapies in the treatment of OCA and melanoma. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society for

Investigative Dermatology.”
“The field of erectile dysfunction (ED) management Smoothened Agonist chemical structure over time has witnessed assorted interventions to enable men to perform sexual intercourse. In recent times, major LB-100 ic50 progress in ED research has led to increasingly effective treatments based on a refined knowledge of the scientific basis for penile erection. Current concepts suggest that therapeutic prospects on the horizon include novel pharmacotherapies, growth factor therapy, gene therapy, and regenerative medicine. The purpose of this review is to present the foundations for future therapies in ED management.”
“Clinical and genetic heterogeneity renders confirmation or exclusion of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome difficult. To re-evaluate and improve the currently suggested diagnostic approach to patients with suspected FAS mutation, the most frequent cause of autoimmune

lymphoproliferative syndrome, we prospectively determined 11 biomarkers in 163 patients with splenomegaly or lymphadenopathy and presumed or proven autoimmune cytopenia(s). Among 98 patients sequenced for FAS mutations in CD3(+)TCR alpha/CD4(-)CD8(-) “double negative” T cells, 32 had germline and six had somatic FAS mutations. The best a priori predictor of FAS mutations was the combination of vitamin B12 and soluble FAS ligand (cut-offs 1255 check details pg/mL and 559 pg/mL, respectively), which had a positive predictive value of 92% and a negative predictive value of 97%. We used these data to develop a web-based probability calculator for FAS mutations using the three most discriminatory biomarkers (vitamin B12, soluble FAS ligand, interleukin-10) of the 11 tested. Since more than 60% of patients with lymphoproliferation and autoimmune cytopenia(s) in our cohort did not harbor FAS mutations, 15% had somatic FAS mutations, and the predictive value of double-negative T-cell values was rather low (positive and negative predictive values of 61% and 77%, respectively), we argue that the previously suggested diagnostic algorithm based on determination of double-negative T cells and germline FAS sequencing, followed by biomarker analysis, is not efficient.

Since then the medicinal therapy of RAS has gained more and more

Since then the medicinal therapy of RAS has gained more and more impact. The following questions are raised: which forms of RAS can be treated by which therapy? What is the best medicinal therapy to treat RAS? What substances are recommended?.”
“Endoglucanase (carboxymethyl cellulase) production Selleckchem Proteasome inhibitor by an alkali tolerant fungus Aspergillus fumigatus MKU1 was characterized

under submerged fermentation conditions. The carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) activity was optimal at pH. 5.0 and 60 degrees C. Intronless gene eng61 coding for endoglucanase from A. fumigants MKUI was cloned and sequenced. The eng61 gene contains 993 bp ORF encoding a polypeptide of 330 amino acids. In silico analysis of the translated sequence revealed the presence of C-terminal cellulose binding module and signal peptide cleavage site between 20(th) and 21(st) amino acids. The eng61 was cloned in pET30b and expressed in Escherichia

coli BL21 DE3. Thus, an intronless endoglucanase gene from an alkali tolerant strain of A. fumigatus has been cloned and expressed.”
“Aluminum-induced neuronal injury has been implicated in various neurodegenerative disorders. However, the underlying mechanism involved in this pathogenesis still remains unknown. Our present findings demonstrated that chronic aluminum exposure resulted in spatial learning impairment and significantly increased intracellular Selleck Ion Channel Ligand Library calcium level in the hippocampus of rats. Examination of the associated protein molecules essential for induction and maintenance of long-term

potentiation revealed that aluminum exposure could increase the expression level of calmodulin (CaM), but the expression levels of CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) were significantly reduced, whereas HSP990 the total protein levels of CaMKII and CREB did not change in the aluminum-treated hippocampus. Thus, we provide a previously unrecognized mechanism whereby chronic aluminum exposure impairs hippocampal learning and memory, at least in part, through disruption of intracellular calcium homeostasis and CaM/CaMKII/CREB signaling pathway.”
“To assess sources and degradation of the herbicide glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] and its metabolite AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid), concentration measurements are often inconclusive and even C-13/C-12 analysis alone may give limited information. To advance isotope ratio analysis of an additional element, we present compound-specific N-15/N-14 analysis of glyphosate and AMPA by a two step derivatization in combination with gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS).


“The pattern of azoles resistance-related proteins express


“The pattern of azoles resistance-related proteins expression in Candida albicans may clarify the mechanism of drug resistance and identify new targets for treatment of Candida infection. We identified proteins differentially expressed in strains between fluconazole-sensitive (CA-3) and resistant (CA-16) C. albicans. Both strains were from the same parent. Proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and differentially expressed proteins were identified through matrix assisted

laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The resulting data were searched against a C. albicans protein database. Fifteen proteins were differentially expressed in the fluconazole-resistant C. NVP-LDE225 order albicans strain CA-16. Five C. albicans strain (Adh1p, Ynk1p, Cqr1p, Pst3p, and Rdi1p) were up-regulated and ten C. albicans strain (Aco1p, Acs2p, Asn1p, Fum11p, Cdc19p, Bat21p, Srb1p, Ifr2p, Dut1p, and Rps21p) were down-regulated. The fluconazole resistance-related proteins of C. albicans are mainly involved in energy metabolism and amino acid synthesis.”
“The aim of this article is to sum up level of health consciousness of general practitioners

buy Sapitinib and oncologists patients about naevus and malignant melanoma. Although melanomas are rare lesions in many countries worldwide, every 10 years the number of melanoma has doubled. General practitioners and oncologists play a basic role in primary strategy to avoid risk factors to develop lesions and to detect melanoma at an early stage.”
“In the present study, terpene composited lipid nanoparticles and lipid nanoparticles were developed and evaluated for dermal delivery of all-trans-retinoic acids (ATRA). Terpene composited lipid nanoparticles and lipid nanoparticles were investigated for size, size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency,

photostability, and cytotoxicity. In vitro skin permeation of ATRA lipid formulations were also evaluated. To explore the ability of lipid nanocarriers to target the skin, the distribution of rhodamine B base in the skin was investigated using confocal YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 solubility dmso laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results indicated that the physicochemical characteristics of terpene composited lipid nanoparticles influenced skin permeability. All lipid nanocarriers significantly protected ATRA from photodegradation and were non-toxic to normal human foreskin fibroblast cells in vitro. Solid lipid nanoparticles containing 10% limonene (10% L-SLN) had the highest ATRA skin permeability. Terpene composited SLN and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) showed higher epidermal permeation of rhodamine B across the skin based on CLSM image analysis. Our study suggests that terpene composited SLN and NLC can be potentially used as dermal drug delivery carriers for ATRA.