ConclusionsApproximately half of Japanese NICU did not observe an

ConclusionsApproximately half of Japanese NICU did not observe any patients with MRSA colonization in September 2011. Control and prevention measures have changed to use of alcohol-based hand rub and gloves in the last decade.”
“The mesenchymal mode of cancer cell invasion characterized by active adhesion turnover and a polarized actin cytoskeleton, is critically regulated by the adaptor protein NEDD9/HEF1/Cas-L While it is known that NEDD9 is subject to extensive phosphorylation modification, the molecules that determine NEDD9 phosphorylation

to stimulate adhesion turnover and mesenchymal cell morphologies are currently unknown. Earlier studies have suggested that the serine/threonine phosphatase PP2A regulates interconversion between a low molecular mass NEDD9 phosphoform and higher molecular mass phosphoforms. However, previous studies have used chemical inhibitors to block PP2A activity. In the present study we therefore aimed Compound C nmr to specifically inhibit PP2A activity via siRNA and dominant negative approaches to investigate the effect of PP2A on interconversion between

115 kDa and 105 kDa NEDD9 and determine the functional consequence of PP2A activity for NEDD9 function. Strikingly, we find that while the phosphatase inhibitor Calyculin A indeed abrogates detachment-induced dephosphorylation of the 115 kDa NEDD9 phosphoform, PP2A depletion does not inhibit 115 kDa to 105 kDa interconversion. selleck chemicals Our data suggest instead that PP2A targets discrete

NEDD9 phosphorylation modifications separate to the events that mediate interconversion between the two forms. Functionally, LDK378 cost PP2A depletion increases NEDD9 mediated cell spreading and mutation of 5369 in the serine-rich region of NEDD9 to aspartate mimics this effect. Importantly, mutation of S369 to alanine abrogates the ability of dominant negative PP2A to increase NEDD9-mediated cell spreading. Collectively, our data reveal that the tumour suppressor PP2A may act via S369 to regulated NEDD9-mediated cell spreading. Crown Copyright (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A novel chemically sulfated polysaccharide SRBPS2a with potent anti-tumor activity was derived from defatted rice bran by chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine (CSA-Pyr) method. The average molecular weight of SRBPS2a was 3.5 x 10(5) Da and the degree of sulfation (DS) was 1.29. The Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and (13)C NMR spectroscopy analysis revealed that SRBPS2a was mainly consist of beta-(1 -> 3)-D-galactopyranosyl residues, the sulfate substitution site was on C-2 and C-4 while the side chains were cutoff during the sulfated reaction. Furthermore, SRBPS2a exhibited evident growth inhibition on mouse mammary tumor EMT-6 cells both in vitro and in vivo. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Generalization gradients to exception patterns and the category prototype were investigated in two experiments.

3%) occurred

3%) occurred selleckchem in the HAART group vs. 25 (16.1%) in the PMTCT group (P < 0.001). The rate of LBW was 22.3% in the HAART group and 12.4% in the PMTCT group (P=0.02). In multivariable analysis (n=309), after adjustment on maternal CD4 cell count, WHO stage, age and maternal BMI, HAART initiated before pregnancy [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-7.51] and during pregnancy (adjusted OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.15-4.65) and maternal BMI at delivery (adjusted OR 2.43,

95% CI 1.20-4.91) were associated with LBW.\n\nConclusion: HAART in pregnant African women with advanced HIV disease substantially reduced mother-to-child transmission, but was associated with LBW. (C) 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Two new pimarane-type diterpenes, eutypellones A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the endophytic fungus Entypella sp. BCC 13199. Cytotoxic activities of the pimaranes 1-5, isolated from this fungus, were evaluated.”
“The lipase from wheat germ was used for the kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols. It has the opposite enantioselectivity against the Kazlauskas rule and acts as an anti-Kazlauskas catalyst. The effect of initial water activity, organic

solvent, acyl donor and temperature were investigated. Wheat germ lipase had a high activity and enantioselectivity only in n-hexane with a high initial water activity (alpha(w) = 0.97), especially with 1-phenylethanol (C 32%, E > 200). Its performance changed little with the chain length of acyl donor BMS-754807 and temperature.”
“The pituitary gland is a highly mitotically active tissue after birth. Various cell types are known to undergo proliferation in the anterior pituitary. However, little is

Cilengitide molecular weight known about the mechanisms regulating mitotic activity in this tissue. When searching for genes specifically expressed in the pituitary gland among those that we previously screened in Drosophila, we found epithelial cell-transforming gene 2 (Ect2). Ect2 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho GTPases, which is known to play an essential role in cytokinesis. Although there have been many cellular studies regarding the function of Ect2, the temporal and spatial expression patterns of Ect2 in vivo have not been determined. In the present study, we examined the postnatal developmental expression of Ect2 in the mouse pituitary. Enhanced Ect2 expression was detected in the mouse pituitary gland during the first 3 weeks after birth, which coincided well with the period of rapid pituitary expansion associated with increased growth rate. Immunostaining analysis showed that Ect2-expressing cells were distributed in the anterior and intermediate lobes, but not the posterior lobe, of the pituitary. These Ect2-expressing cells frequently incorporated the thymidine analogue, EdU (5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine), indicating that these cells were mitotically active.

397; P < 0 001) and diagnostic category (AC versus FA group; b

397; P < 0.001) and diagnostic category (AC versus FA group; beta = 0.347; P < 0.001) were significant determinants of iris volume change.\n\nCONCLUSIONS. With physiologic mydriasis, the iris volume decreased in eyes with chronic

angle closure but remained unchanged in fellow eyes of APAC. Such variations in iris volume responses may influence the subtype of angle closure that develops. (Invest Torin 2 nmr Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013; 54: 708-713) DOI:10.1167/iovs.12-10844″
“Background: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) represents the most aggressive presentation of breast cancer. Women diagnosed with IBC typically have a poorer prognosis compared with those diagnosed with non-IBC tumors. Recommendations and guidelines published to date on the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of women with breast cancer have focused primarily on non-IBC tumors. Establishing a minimum standard for clinical diagnosis and treatment of IBC is needed.\n\nMethods: Recognizing IBC to be a distinct entity, a group of international experts met in December 2008 at the First International Conference on Inflammatory Breast Cancer to develop guidelines for the management of IBC.\n\nResults: The panel of leading IBC experts formed a consensus on the minimum requirements to accurately diagnose IBC, supported by selleckchem pathological

confirmation. In addition, the panel emphasized a multimodality approach of systemic chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy.\n\nConclusions: The goal of these guidelines, based on an expert consensus after careful review of published data, is to help the clinical diagnosis of this rare disease and to standardize management of

IBC among treating physicians in both the academic and community settings.”
“Inhibitor 2 of protein phosphatase 2A (I2PP2A), a biological inhibitor of the cellular serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP2A, is associated with numerous cellular processes that often lead to the formation and progression of cancer. In this study we hypothesized that targeting the inhibition of I2PP2A’s multiple functions in prostate cancer cells might prevent cancer selleck chemical progression. We have investigated the effect of the small chain C6-ceramide, known to be a bioactive tumor suppressor lipid, on I2PP2A function, thereby affecting c-Myc signaling and histone acetylation in cells. Our data indicated that C6-ceramide treatment of prostate cancer cells induces cell death in PC-3, DU145, and LNCaP cells, but not normal prostate epithelial cells. C6-ceramide was able to disrupt the association between PP2A and I2PP2A. C6-ceramide inhibits I2PP2A’s upregulation of c-Myc and downregulation of histone acetylation in prostate cancer cells. Our data indicated that targeting cancer related signaling pathways through I2PP2A using ceramide as an anti-I2PP2A agent could have beneficial effects as a therapeutic approach to prevent prostate cancer.

“Reproductive functions in adult organism are known to be

“Reproductive functions in adult organism are known to be affected by different factors. Effects of social environment at the postnatal ontogenesis attract particular attention since it has deep impact on the development of physiological and emotional state of an individual. Effects of chronic social isolation MK-8931 concentration at different ages on male sexual motivation, testosterone and corticosterone response under conditions of sexual arousal were studied in Wistar rats. After weaning at 21 day of age, rats of one group were isolated for

six weeks and after that they were housed in groups of five per cage for ten weeks (Iso3-9). Rats of the second group were housed in groups of five animals per cage till 13 weeks of age, and then they were isolated for six weeks (Iso13-19). Rats of the control group were housed in

groups during the experiment. Adult 19 week-old male rats were tested under conditions of sexual arousal. The expression of sexual motivation was estimated as the behavioral activity of a male at the transparent perforated partition separating a receptive female. Isolation of adult male rats reduced the number of approaches to the partition, while the period of time a male spent at the partition was not changed and testosterone response was enhanced as compared to control rats. Chronic social isolation during peri-adolescence reduced sexual motivation and prevented PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor cancer arousal-induced elevation of testosterone. Plasma corticosterone increases at sexual arousal in the two groups of isolated rats did not differ from that in controls. Our results are evidence that social isolation during the post-maturity stage (Iso13-19) did not diminish the manifestation of sexual motivation and hormonal response to a receptive female, while isolation during peri-adolescence attenuated behavioral and hormonal expression of sexual arousal in adult males.”
“PURPOSE. To investigate the impact of interocular similarities of a surround stimulus on foveal resolution acuity in the normally developing visual system.\n\nMETHODS. Liquid crystal shutter goggles

synchronized with AZD6244 MAPK inhibitor the monitor frame rate were used to present a Landolt C and surround bars to one or both eyes, in monocular, dichoptic, half-binocular, and binocular viewing conditions. Resolution acuity was measured under each condition in 56 normally sighted children (7 to 14 years of age) and 22 adults (21 to 38 years of age). The effect of the surround bars (crowding) was tested in a subgroup of nine children, and 10 adults.\n\nRESULTS. Across all age groups resolution acuity was significantly better in the binocular condition than in the other three viewing conditions (binocular summation), and was significantly better in the half-binocular (with target presented to the test eye and bars presented to both eyes) than in the dichoptic condition (target presented to test eye and bars presented to the nontested eye only).

2% men) aged 25-64 years, anthropometric indices, blood pressure,

2% men) aged 25-64 years, anthropometric indices, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, lipid profile [triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides] and fasting leptin were measured. Homeostasis

Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was also calculated.\n\nResults. Leptin concentrations were 2.6 fold higher in women compared with men. Subjects with MetS had significantly higher leptin concentrations. Leptin concentrations increased steadily with an increment in the number of MetS components (p <0.001). Leptin was significantly associated with MetS after adjustment for age, cigarette smoking, medication use, physical activity, HOMA-IR, and LDL-C. The significant association between leptin and MetS persisted after adjustment for

body mass index (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.09-1.58 in males and 1.17, 95% CI: 1.01-1.38 in females) and waist Erastin circumference (OR: 1.24 95% CI: 1.01-1.51 in men and 1.22, 95% CI: 1.04-1.43 in women). After dividing subjects into obese and nonobese, leptin concentrations were again significantly higher in subjects with MetS in both groups.\n\nConclusions. We demonstrated that leptin concentrations are significantly associated with International Diabetes Federation (IDF)-defined MetS, independent of overall and central obesity. Our findings point to an independent role for leptin in development of MetS. (C) 2011 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“BACKGROUND: There is considerable uncertainty as to the significance of a high sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) for achieving a successful pregnancy.\n\nMETHODS: The sperm DFI of 124 patients undergoing selleck inhibitor 192 IVF cycles and of 96 patients undergoing 155 ICSI cycles was determined using the sperm chromatin structure assay on neat sperm.\n\nRESULTS: The rate of continuing pregnancies in ICSI cycles (but not in IVF cycles) showed significant negative correlation (r = 0.184, P = 0.022) with the DFI value. A threshold value of DFI which

showed a significant difference (P = 0.005) in rate of continuing Fedratinib pregnancies between higher and lower DFI levels was found for ICSI cycles to be >= 19%, but no such threshold was found for IVF cycles. However, if the threshold of >= 30% was used for IVF cycles there was a non-significant lowering of the rates of continuing pregnancy and implantation at the higher DFI levels. DFI level had no effect on fertilization rate or on the percentage of embryos having more than 4 cells at Day 3 after fertilization. A high DFI level had a marked significant effect (P = 0.001) on implantation rate in ICSI cycles but not in IVF cycles. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.268, P = 0.001) between DFI and sperm midpiece defects was also noted in the ICSI patients.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: These observations may help to resolve the issues about how, and to what extent, sperm DNA damage impacts upon the success of IVF and ICSI procedures.

05) In conclusion, a pressure algometer proved to be a useful to

05). In conclusion, a pressure algometer proved to be a useful tool to objectively monitor the palpation of individual Warmbloods by individual physiotherapists. The correlation of their scores to the objective MNT measurements elucidated that there were differences on which scale (“pain”, “temperature”, “muscle tone”, “mobility”) they merely relied upon in their palpation. Significant effects of physiotherapeutic diagnostic palpation on MNT, however, were not found. The lower MNT of the horses at the second trial in the evening could be a sensitization of the measurement location because of bruising, a learning effect selleck inhibitor of

the horses, or a diurnal fluctuation. The use of pressure algometry has both a potential to quantify clinical

neck and back musculoskeletal sensitivity in horses possibly leading to dysfunction, as veil as to objectively evaluate treatment results. Repeated measurements on the same day and on the same location along the vertebral column may influence absolute MNT values. The algometer can be used with success provided that the operator has proper and frequent training.”
“Secondary hypoxia is a known contributor to adverse outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Based on the evidence that hypoxia and TBI in isolation induce neuroinflammation, we investigated whether TBI combined with hypoxia enhances cerebral cytokine production. We also explored whether increased concentrations of injury biomarkers discriminate between hypoxic (Hx) and normoxic Z-DEVD-FMK manufacturer (Nx) patients, correlate selleckchem to worse outcome, and depend on blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. Forty-two TBI patients with Glasgow Coma Scale smaller than = 8 were recruited. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum

were collected over 6 days. Patients were divided into Hx (n=22) and Nx (n=20) groups. Eight cytokines were measured in the CSF; albumin, S100, myelin basic protein (MBP) and neuronal specific enolase (NSE) were quantified in serum. CSF/serum albumin quotient was calculated for BBB function. Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) was assessed at 6 months post-TBI. Production of granulocye macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was higher, and profiles of GM-CSF, interferon (IFN)-gamma and, to a lesser extent, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), were prolonged in the CSF of Hx but not Nx patients at 4-5 days post-TBI. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 increased similarly in both Hx and Nx groups. S100, MBP, and NSE were significantly higher in Hx patients with unfavorable outcome. Among these three biomarkers, S100 showed the strongest correlations to GOSE after TBI-Hx. Elevated CSF/serum albumin quotients lasted for 5 days post-TBI and displayed similar profiles in Hx and Nx patients. We demonstrate for the first time that post-TBI hypoxia is associated with prolonged neuroinflammation, amplified extravasation of biomarkers, and poor outcome.

Design: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial

\n\nDesign: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial.\n\nSetting: An acute stroke unit.\n\nSubjects: Individuals recruited within three weeks of stroke onset with severe arm function deficits.\n\nInterventions: Injections of quarter and half standard dose botulinum toxin A to the upper limb, with a control of normal saline injections.\n\nMain measures: Arm function, active and passive movement, and spasticity at elbow and wrist were recorded at baseline, and at 4, 8, 12 and 20 weeks post intervention. A pre-planned subgroup analysis included only subjects with no arm function at baseline (Action Research Arm Test score = 0).\n\nResults:

Thirty subjects were recruited, and 21 GSK1210151A Epigenetics inhibitor completed all assessments. Arm function scores improved in all three groups between baseline and week 20. There was no benefit for active treatment over control in the whole group analysis. In the subgroup BVD-523 purchase analysis the active groups improved when compared with the control group and effect sizes for improvement in this subgroup were 0.6 and 0.5 for the quarter dose and half dose groups respectively.\n\nConclusions: Individuals with no arm function within three weeks of stroke may benefit functionally from botulinum toxin. Using the effect size of 0.5, further studies would need a minimum of 101 participants in each group to confirm this finding.”
“Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant polyphenol molecule from green

tea and is known to exhibit antioxidative as well as tumor suppressing activity. In order to examine EGCG tumor invasion and suppressing activity against adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), two HTLV-1 positive leukemia cells (HuT-102 and this website C91-PL) were treated with non-cytotoxic concentrations of EGCG for 2 and 4 days. Proliferation was significantly inhibited by 100 mu M at 4 days, with low cell lysis or cytotoxicity. HTLV-1 oncoprotein (Tax) expression in HuT-102 and C91-PL cells was inhibited by

25 mu M and 125 mu M respectively. The same concentrations of EGCG inhibited NF-kB nuclearization and stimulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in both cell lines. These results indicate that EGCG can inhibit proliferation and reduce the invasive potential of HTLV-1-positive leukemia cells. It apparently exerted its effects by suppressing Tax expression, manifested by inhibiting the activation of NF-kB pathway and induction of MMP-9 transcription in HTLV-1 positive cells.”
“Objective: To determine the compliance of US camps with guidelines for health and safety practices as set forth by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the US Department of Homeland Security. Methods: An electronic questionnaire was distributed to US camps during the summer of 2012 as identified by 3 online summer camp directories. Results: Analysis was performed on 433 completed questionnaires. Fourteen percent of camps were considered medically related.

Here we report the characterization of AtMYB118, a gene encoding

Here we report the characterization of AtMYB118, a gene encoding a putative R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, which expresses

predominantly in siliques. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis and in situ hybridization showed that the transcripts of AtMYB118 were mainly detected in developing embryos. Constitutive over-expression of AtMYB118 resulted in pleiotropic phenotypes, including dwarfism, compact rosettes, backward curly-leaves, smaller flowers and siliques, and premature seed dehydration at the tip of siliques. Microarray analysis showed that many genes encoding proteins accumulated during embryogenesis were remarkably up-regulated in AtMYB118-over-expressed transgenic plants, including late embryogenesis Saracatinib cost abundant proteins (LEA proteins), storage proteins, seed maturation proteins, and proteins related with seed dehydration, desiccation and ABA signaling pathway.

These results suggest that AtMYB118 may play an important selleck compound role during embryogenesis and seed maturation.”
“In the title compound, C13H16ClFN2O, the piperazine ring is flanked by 1-(2-fluorobenzyl) piperazine and adopts a chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the fluorophenyl ring and the four planar C atoms (r.m.s. = 0.0055 angstrom) of the piperazine chair is 78.27 (7)degrees, whereas the dihedral angle between the four planar C atoms of the piperazine chair and the ethanone plane is 55.21 (9) angstrom; the Cl atom displaced by 1.589 (2) angstrom out of the plane.”
“Due to the increasing incidence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), many studies have aimed to improve its diagnosis. Particular attention has been focused on measuring volumes of brain structures. Only few studies have investigated-whether the cerebellar volume changes with the stage of dementia. It is controversial whether the serum

apolipoprotein E (ApoE) level is an appropriate AD marker. This study ASP2215 was designed to clarify the significance of both cerebellar volume measurements and ApoE level measurements as markers of neurodegenerative changes.\n\nThis study included 55 subjects with AD, 30 subjects with mild cognitive impairments (MCI), and a control group with 30 subjects. We measured the brain, cerebellum, and brain stem volumes with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We determined serum ApoE levels, APOE genotypes, and neuropsychological test scores.\n\nIn the control group, we found that ApoE levels were significantly higher for subjects with the APOE 2/3 genotype than those with the 4/4 genotype. This finding may indicate that ApoE plays a protective role against AD development in subjects with the APOE 2/3 genotype. ApoE levels were not significantly different in patients with AD and MCI. No correlations were found between serum ApoE levels and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores or the volumes of brain structures.\n\nThis study could not confirm the appropriateness of the cerebellum volume as an early AD marker.

Human Rh C glycoprotein (RhCG) forms a trimeric complex that play

Human Rh C glycoprotein (RhCG) forms a trimeric complex that plays an essential role in ammonia excretion and renal pH regulation. The X-ray crystallographic structure of human RhCG, determined at 2.1 angstrom resolution, reveals the mechanism of ammonia transport. Each monomer contains 12 transmembrane

helices, one more than in the bacterial homologs. Reconstituted into proteoliposomes, RhCG conducts NH(3) to raise internal pH. Models of the erythrocyte Rh complex based on our RhCG structure suggest that the erythrocytic Rh complex is composed of stochastically 4 assembled heterotrimers of RhAG, RhD, and RhCE.”
“Recently, interest on the role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pathophysiology of JNK inhibitors library hypertension has shifted toward greater emphasis on new developments in local RAS in specific tissues. We have focused our recent investigations on the role of the intrarenal-intratubular RAS in hypertension. All of the components needed for angiotensin II generation are present within the various compartments in the kidney. This brief review is focused on recent evidence that inappropriate activation of renin in distal nephron segments, by acting on angiotensinogen generated in the proximal

tubule cells and delivered to the distal nephron may contribute to increased distal intrarenal angiotensin II formation, Dorsomorphin in vitro sodium retention, and development and progression of hypertension. J Am Soc Hypertens 2009;3(2):96-104. (C) 2009 American Society of Hypertension. All rights reserved.”
“Root rot of papaya, caused by Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae, is the most widespread and important disease of papaya and is particularly damaging to many papaya varieties popular in southern India, such as Coorg Honey Dew and Surya. The objective of this study was to evaluate biocontrol agents (BCAs) under controlled Screening Library supplier and field conditions for their efficacy against Phytophthora infecting papaya cv. Surya and to detect and quantify the reduction in the pathogen population by immunological techniques. Glomus mosseae, Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas

fluorescens were inoculated at the time of planting in the nursery and at the time of transplanting in single, dual and tripartite combinations allowing colonization up to 90 days. Plants were challenged thereafter with Phytophthora inoculum multiplied on specialized Phytophthora medium. Uninoculated plants and those inoculated with pathogen only were controls. All the BCAs in general improved plant growth and reduced severity of disease compared to uninoculated control in both pot experiments and under field conditions. Plants preinoculated with G. mosseae + T. harzianum, provided the best results when challenged with Phytophthora, with increased plant height, girth and yield and also reduced disease severity over plants not inoculated with BCAs.

Effluents from continuous in vitro three-stage fermentation colon

Effluents from continuous in vitro three-stage fermentation colonic models of Salmonella Typhimurium infection 432 inoculated with immobilized child microbiota and Salmonella were directly applied to confluent mucussecreting HT29-MTX cell layers. The effects of Salmonella, addition of two bacteriocinogenic strains, Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 (thermophilicin B67) and Escherichia coli L1000 (microcin B17), and inulin were tested Selisistat on Salmonella growth and interactions

with epithelial cell layers. Salmonella adhesion and invasion were investigated and epithelial integrity assessed by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) measurements and confocal microscopy observation. Data from complex effluents were compared with pure Salmonella cultures.\n\nResults: Salmonella in effluents of all reactors of the colonic fermentation model stabilized at mean values of check details 5.3 +/- 0.8 log(10) cfu/ml effluent. Invasion of cell-associated Salmonella was up to 50-fold lower in complex reactor samples compared to pure Salmonella cultures. It further depended on environmental factors, with 0.2 +/- 0.1% being measured with proximal, 0.6 +/- 0.2% with transverse and 1.3 +/- 0.7% with distal reactor effluents,

accompanied by a similar high decrease of TER across cell monolayers (minus 45%) and disruption of tight junctions. Subsequent addition of E. coli L1000 stimulated Salmonella growth (6.4 +/- 0.6 log(10) cfu/ml effluent of all 3 reactors) and further decreased TER, but led to 10-fold decreased invasion efficiency when tested with distal reactor samples. In contrast, presence of B. thermophilum RBL67 revealed a protective effect on epithelial Proteasome structure integrity compared to previous E. coli L1000 periods, as reflected by a significant mean increase of TER by 58% in all reactors. Inulin addition enhanced Salmonella

growth and invasion when tested with distal and proximal reactor samples, respectively, but induced a limited decrease of TER (minus 18%) in all reactors.\n\nConclusions: Our results highlight the benefits of combining suitable cellular and colonic fermentation models to assess strain-specific first-level host protection properties of probiotics during Salmonella infection, providing an efficient system biology tool for preclinical development of new antimicrobials.”
“Are microalgae a potential energy source for biofuel production? This paper presents the laboratory results from a Nannochloropsis sp. microalga biorefinery for the production of oil, high-value pigments, and biohydrogen (bioH(2)). The energy consumption and CO2 emissions involved in the whole process (microalgae cultivation, harvest, dewater, mill, extraction and leftover biomass fermentation) were evaluated. An economic evaluation was also performed. Oil was obtained by soxhlet (SE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The bioH(2) was produced by fermentation of the leftover biomass.