As shown in the case presentation, Mr D’s Ixazomib Ki infection was treated promptly and aggressively, albeit unsuccessfully. Establishing causality between clozapine therapy and pneumonia and diabetic complications in this specific case is of course not possible. It is possible that there was no correlation and that the patient’s death may have been independent of clozapine therapy. Patients with schizophrenia are known to have higher rates of diabetes irrespective of antipsychotic therapy [Holt et al. 2005], reflecting a likely multifactorial association. Mr D’s diabetes had been historically difficult to manage and
his deterioration may have been part of his disease course. In addition, Mr D also had risk factors Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for pneumonia. However, given the current Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical understanding of clozapine’s adverse effects, it is likely that a combination of pre-existing risk factors and clozapine therapy contributed to his death. Conclusions Given the evidence in the literature linking clozapine with diabetogenic effects and pneumonia, as illustrated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the case presented, we suggest there is a need to reconsider routine monitoring in early therapy. Guidelines and consensus opinion fail to highlight what may be a high-risk period for clozapine-treated patients,
specifically the first month of treatment. Diabetic screening using FPG within the first month of treatment would not represent an extra burden on the patient because it could be incorporated into the weekly full blood Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical count sampling. In patients with pre-existing diabetes, simple CBG could be conducted on a daily basis to monitor diabetic control. We would also suggest that patients with risk factors
for developing pneumonia should be closely monitored for infection and steps taken to minimize risk by selleckchem Axitinib addressing modifiable risk factors. It is also important to note that these issues have implications when considering the safety of clozapine titration in the community rather than under closer Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical supervision in the hospital setting. We appreciate that patients with schizophrenia have high levels of physical comorbidity irrespective of specific iatrogenic mechanisms. Therefore, in clinical practice, the decision to treat patients with clozapine Cilengitide will be based on a risk—benefit analysis. However with further research, high-risk patients requiring closer monitoring, who are more susceptible to presenting with diabetic emergencies and/or pneumonia may be identifiable in the future. In conclusion, we recommend raised clinician awareness of the potential for serious diabetic and respiratory complications in early clozapine therapy. In addition to closer monitoring and prompt treatment, we suggest a rethink of clinical guidelines reflecting the need for early detection of such cases. Footnotes This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.