4% . The assay may eliminate some of the skill needed in performing complicated staining procedures and recognizing the morphology of the small Cryptosporidium oocysts. However, staining holds importance due to its low cost in addition to having a comparable efficacy with the assay. After the assessment, each attribute was valued as follows; cost effectiveness (0.32), sensitivity (0.30), ease of use and interpretation (0.17), time taken for the procedure (0.13) and batch testing (0.08). We ranked Kinyoun’s staining better than ELISA for Cryptosporidium spp. detection because ELISA is not affordable to most of our patients hailing from lower economic
status. MacPherson et al also gave maximum consideration to cost effectiveness of the tests . Except having lower sensitivity for Microsporidia spp. identification Calcoflour White was found to be better in all aspects when compared to the combination of Calcoflour White and DAPI. For Cyclospora learn more spp., autoflourescence was the most commendable technique that can be carried out in laboratories equipped with fluorescence microscope and for others Safranin staining could solve the purpose. Conclusions Therefore, we conclude that a combination of minimum three procedures should be carried out for the screening of stool specimens of HIV patients. Besides the direct microscopy, the samples should be subjected to CP673451 mw either Kinyoun’s staining
or Safranin staining and Chromotrope 2R staining or Calcoflour White staining depending on the availability of fluorescent Bumetanide microscope. If not feasible, at least Kinyoun’s staining should be made mandatory for every diarrheal stool sample from HIV patients. Since the incidence of Microsporidia spp. and Cyclospora spp. in the HIV negative patients is negligible, so the screening for these may not be rewarding in this group.
Whereas, screening for Cryptosporidium spp. is justified in HIV negative family members of the HIV patients due to its high incidence. Also due to difference in infrastructure, expertise and the number of specimens tested every laboratory should assign its own value or utility to the linearly ranked attributes and apply Multiattribute utility theory or the Analytical hierarchy process to decide the most appropriate methodology. Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to Prof. Gajendra Singh Director IMS, BHU for his guidance, Dr. Ragini Tilak for providing the fluorescent stain, Anand Krishna Tiwari for his help in fluorescence microscopy and Madhu Yashpal for helping in see more editing the manuscript. References 1. Garcia LS, Bruckner DA, Brewer TC, Shimizu RY: Techniques for the recovery and identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts from stool specimens. J Clin Microbiol 1983, 18:185–190.PubMed 2. Tuli L, Mohapatra TM, Gulati AK: Socio-economic relevance of opportunistic infections in HIV patients in and around Varanasi. Indian J Prev Soc Med 2008, 39:33–35. 3. Diagnostic Procedures for Stool Specimens [http://www.dpd.