Tumor-derived microvesicles did not induce apoptosis in Jurkat T-

Tumor-derived microvesicles did not induce apoptosis in Jurkat T-cells. In contrast, NSCLC cell lines down-regulated CD3 epsilon but not CD3 zeta chain expression in Jurkat T-cells; this effect was induced by

soluble factors but not by microvesicles. In lung adenocarcinoma patients, significant decreases of MFI values for CD3 epsilon, but not CD3 zeta, were found in CD4+T and CD8+T cells from pleural effusion compared to peripheral blood and in peripheral blood of patients compared to healthy donors.\n\nConclusions Our data do not support the tumor counterattack hypothesis for NSCLC. Nonetheless, down-regulation of CD3 epsilon in T-cells induced by NSCLC cells might lead to T-cell dysfunction.”
“MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in posttranscriptional gene Cell Cycle inhibitor regulation by repressing the expression

of their target genes through inhibition of translation and/or cleavage of mRNAs. In plants, the target genes of miRNAs usually belong to large gene families, and miRNA regulation is gained for individual genes throughout gene family evolution. To explore the selective effect of miRNA regulation on their target genes, we investigated the pattern of polymorphism and interspecific divergence in 11 multigene families that include target genes of ancient miRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that the levels of polymorphism and divergence in target genes are significantly reduced, whereas those for nontarget genes are very similar to the genomic averages. This pattern is particularly clear at synonymous sites; we found that the reduction of MI-503 nmr synonymous variation is caused by selection for optimal codons, which increase BAY 57-1293 mw the efficiency and accuracy of translation. Based on these results, we conclude that tuning via miRNA regulation has a strong impact on the evolution of target genes through which highly sophisticated regulation systems have been established.miRNA system, gene duplication, codon usage bias.”
“Proteins evolve at very different rates and, most notably, at rates inversely

proportional to the level at which they are produced. The relative frequency of highly expressed proteins in the proteome, and thus their impact on the cell budget, increases steeply with growth rate. The maximal growth rate is a key life-history trait reflecting trade-offs between rapid growth and other fitness components. We show that the maximal growth rate is weakly affected by genetic drift. The negative correlation between protein expression levels and evolutionary rate and the positive correlation between expression levels of highly expressed proteins and growth rates, suggest that investment in growth affects the evolutionary rate of proteins, especially the highly expressed ones. Accordingly, analysis of 61 families of orthologs in 74 proteobacteria shows that differences in evolutionary rates between lowly and highly expressed proteins depend on maximal growth rates.

Results There was no statistical significance between the dai

\n\nResults There was no statistical significance between the daily inhalable particle and daily incidence of sudden unexplained death. Incidence rate of sudden unexplained death had nonlinear positive correlation with daily temperature. When the temperature was 5 degrees C above the daily average temperature, the daily incidence of sudden unexplained death went up with the rising selleck chemicals llc temperature.\n\nConclusion Temperature may be one of the key risk factor or precipitating factor of SUD. Chin Med J 2012;125(24):4429-4433″
“We report on magnetic imaging study of regular hexagonal shaped NiFe elements arranged in different configurations.

By making use of stray field with moderate strength and well-defined symmetry, which is lacking in vortices formed

in circular elements, it is possible to control the relative chirality of Torin 1 manufacturer vortex in a ring network of hexagons unlike in an array network. However, the alternating chirality of the hexagons disappears when the interelemental spacing becomes large, an element is missing from the ring network, or they are arranged in linear chains. The results can be understood by the symmetry and direction of the stray field generated by the individual elements. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3067852]“
“Fresh and post-thaw parameters (motility, morphology and viability) of stallion epididymal spermatozoa that have been and have not been exposed to seminal plasma were evaluated, and directly compared to fresh and post-thaw parameters of ejaculated PF-03084014 spermatozoa. Six sperm categories of each stallion (n = 4) were evaluated for motility, morphology and viability. These categories were fresh ejaculated spermatozoa (Fr-E), fresh epididymal spermatozoa that had been exposed to seminal plasma (Fr-SP+), fresh epididymal spermatozoa that had never been exposed to seminal plasma (Fr-SP-), frozen-thawed ejaculated spermatozoa (Cr-E), frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa that had been exposed to seminal plasma prior to freezing (Cr-SP+) and frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa

that had never been exposed to seminal plasma (Cr-SP-).\n\nResults show that seminal plasma stimulates initial motility of fresh epididymal stallion spermatozoa while this difference in progressive motility is no longer present post-thaw; and that progressive motility of fresh or frozen-thawed ejaculated stallion spermatozoa is not always a good indicator for post-thaw progressive motility of epididymal spermatozoa.\n\nThis study shows that seminal plasma has a positive influence on the incidence of overall sperm defects, midpiece reflexes and distal cytoplasmic droplets in frozen-thawed stallion epididymal spermatozoa while the occurance of midpiece reflexes is likely to be linked to distal cytoplasmic droplets.

ULK2 also inhibited the growth of glioma cells, which required au

ULK2 also inhibited the growth of glioma cells, which required autophagy induction as kinase mutant of ULK2 failed to induce autophagy and inhibit growth. Furthermore, ULK2 induced autophagy and inhibited growth in Ras-transformed immortalized Baby Mouse Kidney (iBMK) ATG5(+/+) but not in autophagy-deficient ATG5(-/-) cells. Growth inhibition due to ULK2 induced high levels of autophagy under starvation or chemotherapy utilized apoptotic cell death but not at low levels of autophagy. Growth inhibition by ULK2 also appears to involve catalase degradation and reactive oxygen species generation. ULK2 overexpression inhibited anchorage independent growth, inhibited astrocyte HKI-272 supplier transformation

in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Of all autophagy genes, we found ULK2 and its homologue ULK1 were only down-regulated in all grades of glioma. Thus these results altogether suggest that inhibition of autophagy by ULK1/2 down-regulation is essential for glioma development.”
“Piper colubrinum Link., a distant relative of Piper nigruni L., is immune to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici Leonian that causes ‘quick wilt’ in cultivated black pepper (P. nigrwn). The osmotin, PR5 gene homologue, earlier identified from P. colubrinum, showed significant overexpression in response

to pathogen and defense SN-38 signalling molecules. The present study focuses on the functional validation of P. colubrinum osmotin (PcOSM) by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) using Tobacco Rattle Virus (TRV)-based vector. A-1155463 P. colubrinum plants maintained under controlled growth conditions in a growth chamber were infiltrated with Agrobacteriwn carrying TRV empty vector (control) and TRV vector carrying PcOSM. Three weeks

post infiltration, viral movement was confirmed in newly emerged leaves of infiltrated plants by RT-PCR using TRV RNA1 and TRV RNA2 primers. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed significant down-regulation of PcOSM gene in TRV-PcOSM infiltrated plant compared with the control plants. The control and silenced plants were challenged with Phytophthora capsici which demonstrated that knock-down of PcOSM in P. colubrinwn, leads to increased fungal mycelial growth in silenced plants compared to control plants, which was accompanied by decreased accumulation of H2O2 as indicated by 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated that Piper colubrinum osmotin gene is required for resisting P. capsici infection and has possible role in hypersensitive cell death response and oxidative burst signaling during infection.”
“The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a secondary metabolite produced by species of the plant pathogen Fusarium, causes serious problems in cereal crop production because of its toxicity towards humans and livestock. A biological approach for the degradation of DON using a DON-degrading bacterium (DDB) appears to be promising, although information about DDBs is limited.

Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression of operative in

Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression of operative interventions within the bPAB group demonstrated the following risk factors: subsequent 2-ventricle repairs (hazard ratio [HR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-6.7), smallest band diameter (HR per additional millimeter, 0.059; 95% CI, 0.004-0.849), and duration of band placement more than 90 days (HR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.0-12.6). Hemodynamics and Fontan candidacy did not differ between groups. Conclusions: Patients with bPAB require additional interventions at earlier time points than Norwood patients. Patients with smaller bands and longer duration of banding are at high risk. Despite

stenoses requiring additional interventions, Fontan candidacy is maintained.”
“Evidence suggests that a regular and reliable transfer of cash to households with orphaned and vulnerable children has a strong and positive effect on LY411575 inhibitor child outcomes. However, conditional cash transfers are considered by some as particularly intrusive and

the question on whether or not to apply conditions to cash transfers is an issue of controversy. Contributing to policy debates on the appropriateness of conditions, this article sets out to investigate the overall buy in of conditions by different stakeholders and to identify pathways that contribute to an acceptability of conditions. The article draws on data from a cluster-randomized trial of a community-led cash transfer programme in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe. An endpoint survey distributed Selleck S63845 to 5167 households assessed community members’ acceptance of conditions and 35 in-depth interviews and 3 focus groups with a total of 58 adults and 4 youth examined local perceptions of conditions. The study found a significant and widespread acceptance of conditions primarily because they were seen as fair and a proxy for good parenting or guardianship. In a socio-economic context

where child grants are not considered a citizen entitlement, community members and cash transfer recipients valued the conditions associated with these grants. The community members interpreted the fulfilment of the conditions as a proxy for achievement and merit, enabling them to participate rather than sit back as passive BGJ398 mw recipients of aid. Although conditions have a paternalistic undertone and engender the sceptics’ view of conditions being pernicious and even abominable, it is important to recognize that community members, when given the opportunity to participate in programme design and implementation, can take advantage of conditions and appropriate them in a way that helps them manage change and overcome the social divisiveness or conflict that otherwise may arise when some people are identified to benefit and others not.”
“The female estrogen 17 beta-estradiol (E2) enhances pancreatic beta-cell function via estrogen receptors (ERs).

In most series, only a minority of patients with antiphospholipid

In most series, only a minority of patients with antiphospholipid antibodies develop a clinical manifestation.\n\nMethods.

A cross-sectional Study of consecutive patients in the Hopkins Lupus Center was performed. Interviews were done and records were reviewed for the following variables: gender, ethnicity, hypertension, triglycerides, cholesterol, smoking, diabetes mellitus, homocysteine, https://www.selleckchem.com/products/apo866-fk866.html cancer, hepatitis C, hormone replacement therapy/oral contraceptives, hereditary thrombophilia, anticardiolipin antibodies IgG, IgM and IgA, and lupus anticoagulant (LAC). Our aim was to identify risk factors associated with thrombosis and pregnancy loss in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies.\n\nResults. A total of 122 patients (84% female, 74% Caucasian) were studied. Patients were divided into 3 groups: primary APS, APS associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with antiphospholipid antibodies

but no thrombosis or pregnancy loss. Venous thrombosis was associated with high triglycerides (p = 0.001), hereditary thrombophilia (p = 0.02), anticardiolipin antibodies IgG > 40 (p = 0.04), and LAC (p = 0.012). Hypertriglyceridemia was associated with a 6.4-fold A-1210477 in vivo increase, hereditary thrombophilia with a 7.3-fold increase, and anticardiolipin IgG > 40 GPL with a 2.8-fold increase in the risk Of venous thrombosis. Arterial thrombosis was associated with hypertension

(p = 0.008) and elevated homocysteine (p = 0.044). Hypertension was associated with a 2.4-fold increase in the risk of arterial thrombosis. No correlations were found for pregnancy loss.\n\nConclusion. The frequency of thrombosis learn more and pregnancy loss is greater in APS associated with SLE than in primary APS. Risk factors differ for venous and arterial thrombosis in APS. Treatment of hypertension may be the most important intervention to reduce arterial thrombosis. Elevated triglycerides are a major associate of venous thrombosis, but the benefit of treatment is not known. Hereditary thrombophilia is an associate of venous but not arterial thrombosis, making it cost-effective five to investigate only ill venous thrombosis. (First Release May 15 2009; J Rheumatol 2009;36:1195-9; doi: 10.3899/jrheum.081194)”
“Chemical tissue fixation, followed by embedding in either agarose or Fomblin, is common practice in time-intensive MRI studies of ex vivo biological samples, and is required to prevent tissue autolysis and sample motion. However, the combined effect of fixation and sample embedding may alter tissue structure and MRI properties.

In this method, the catalyst is able to promote a cascade of two

In this method, the catalyst is able to promote a cascade of two discrete chemoselective

C-N bond-forming processes that allows the highly selective and predictable formation of complex heterocycles from simple, readily available starting materials.”
“Regulated movement of stem cells is critical for organogenesis during development and for homeostasis and repair in adulthood. Here we analyze the biological significance and molecular mechanisms underlying stem cell trafficking in the generation of the germline, and the generation and regeneration of blood and muscle. Comparison across organisms and lineages reveals remarkable conservation as well as specialization in homing and migration mechanisms used by mature leukocytes, adult and fetal stem cells, and cancer stem cells. In vivo trafficking underpins the successful therapeutic application https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ew-7197.html of hematopoietic stem cells for bone-marrow transplant, and further elucidation of homing and migration pathways in other systems will enable broader application of stem cells for targeted cell therapy and drug delivery.”
“Five genomes of human subspecies B1 adenoviruses isolated from cases BLZ945 of acute respiratory disease have been sequenced and archived for reference. These include representatives of two prevalent genomic variants of HAdV-7, i.e., HAdV-7h and HAdV7d2. The other three are HAdV-3/16, HAdV-16

strain E26, and HAdV-3+7 strain Takeuchi. All are recombinant genomes. Genomics and bioinformatics provide detailed views into the genetic makeup of these pathogens and insight into their molecular evolution. Retrospective characterization of particularly problematic older pathogens such as HAdV-7h (1987) and intriguing isolates such as HAdV-3+7 strain Takeuchi Sapanisertib in vitro (1958) may provide clues to their phenotypes and

serology and may suggest protocols for prevention and treatment.”
“Purpose: We reviewed studies from 1999 to 2009 on anxiolytic effects of different essential oils toward rodents in anxiety-related behavioral models. Method: Journal papers that evaluated the anxiolytic effects of essential oils for rodents were extracted from available electronic data bases. Results: The results based on 14 s tudies showed that different rodent species were recruited including ICR mice and Swiss mice. Most of studies applied the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) as the animal behavioral model. Lavender oil was the most popular within the 14 studies. Lavender and rose oils were found to be effective in some of the studies. Only one study reported the underlying neurophysiological mechanism in terms of concentrations of emotionally related neuro-transmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and their derivatives, in various brain regions. Conclusion: Some essential oils are found to be effective to induce anxiolytic effect in rodents under different animal anxiety models. However, more standardized experimental procedures and outcome measures are needed in future studies.

2850) Independent predictors of future events were low b-hemoglo

2850). Independent predictors of future events were low b-hemoglobin (p = 0.0084), high b-leukocytes (p = 0.0034), and history of a previous vascular event (p = 0.0032). Age (p = 0.0286), high p-creatinine (p = 0.0165), and history of a previous event (p = 0.0311) were independent predictors of death.\n\nConclusion: APC-PCI complex levels were higher in PAD patients than in controls, but did not predict buy CH5183284 the clinical outcome. The effect of a possible prethrombotic state, as reflected in increased APC-PCI levels, on prognosis and severity of atherosclerotic disease has to be further investigated.”
“Cu2Te thin films were prepared by a coevaporation method. The structural,

optical, and electronic properties of Cu2Te thin films were investigated using X-ray diffraction, UV-visible-IR transmittance and reflectance spectra, and Hall measurements. The results show that single-phase Cu2Te thin films

can be obtained after annealing at 170 degrees C, and that annealing temperatures higher than 200 degrees C induce the Cu2Te coexisting phase. Subsequently, CdTe solar cells with a Cu2Te layer were fabricated SNX-5422 research buy and annealed at various temperatures. CdTe solar cells with a single-phase hexagonal Cu2Te layer annealed at a temperature of 180 degrees C show a good ohmic-contact behavior. (C) 2009 The Japan Society of Applied Physics”
“The Carrera Unified Formulation (CUF) is used in this paper to develop higher-order beam theories for composite laminates. In the framework of the CUF, the three-dimensional displacement field is approximated AL3818 ic50 as a truncated Taylor-type expansion series of the generalized displacements, which lie on the beam axis. The truncation of the series determines the theory order N, which is a free parameter of the formulation. The strong form of the principle of virtual displacements is used to obtain the equations of motion and the natural boundary conditions for the laminated beam in free vibration. An exact dynamic stiffness matrix is then developed by relating the amplitudes of harmonically varying loads to those of the responses. The Wittrick-Williams algorithm is applied to solve the transcendental eigenvalue problem resulting

from the present approach. Composite beams with arbitrary boundary conditions, geometries and lamination schemes can be analysed with the proposed method. Numerical investigations are carried out and the results are compared with reference solutions from the literature and with solutions from commercial finite elements codes. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Tenofovir (TFV) has been proven to prevent the transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) through the vagina. But, there is little information available about its stability under various storage and stress conditions. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the degradation behavior and physicochemical stability of TFV using liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and solid state X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses.

In all the dogs the presence of a pericardial exudate was noted a

In all the dogs the presence of a pericardial exudate was noted and in 5 cases it was the only lesion detected during the examination. All animals were subjected to necropsy and histopathology was performed in the heart, spleen, liver, kidney, and lung. In 5 cases the tumor was present exclusively in the atrial wall. In 4 cases

it was present in the lumen of the right atrium. In 5 cases metastases were detected: in 2 cases to the lungs, in 2 cases to the spleen, and in a one case to the pericardium. The surgical procedure is difficult and may be effective in dogs in which no metastases have developed yet. In the remaining cases palliative therapy is the only option.”
“The aim Screening Library ic50 of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of the entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HP88 and Heterorhabditis indica LPP1 on the reproductive biology of partially engorged females of Dermacentor nitens. Four groups were formed, with each group containing 10 females and exposed to concentrations of 0, 75, 300, and 1200 nematodes for each female. This procedure was performed separately for each nematode. The following biological parameters were evaluated: egg mass weight, egg production index, PFTα supplier hatching percentage, and percentage of control. H. bacteriophora HP88 at the two highest concentrations (300 and 1200 EPNs/female) caused a reduction (p smaller than

0.05) on the egg mass and egg production index. Was noted a significant reduction (p smaller than 0.05) in the percentage of hatched in all the treated groups. For H. indica LPP1, all treatments resulted in decreased (p smaller than 0.05) values for all the parameters. The percentages of controls obtained at concentrations of 75, 300, and 1200 EPNs/female were 56.3, 89.3, and 98.8 and 77.5, 77.1, and 95.9 for H. bacteriophora HP88 and H. indica LPP1, respectively. Therefore, it is concluded that these nematodes showed pathogenicity JNJ-26481585 concentration toward partially engorged females of D. nitens, thereby negatively affecting the reproductive biology

of this tick. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: To evaluate an intervention for improving antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) guideline compliance to prevent surgical site infections in children. Background: Although appropriate AP reduces surgical site infection, and guidelines improve quality of care, changing practice is difficult. To facilitate behavioral change, various barriers need to be addressed. Methods: A multidisciplinary task force at a pediatric hospital developed an evidence-based AP guideline. Subsequently, the guideline was posted in operating rooms and the online formulary, only recommended antibiotics were available in operating rooms, incoming trainees received orientation, antibiotic verification was included in time-out, computerized alerts were set for inappropriate postoperative prophylaxis, and surgeons received e-mails when guideline was not followed.

Both trials were graded as ‘adequate’ for allocation concealment;

Both trials were graded as ‘adequate’ for allocation concealment; however, generation of allocation sequence and blinding methods were ‘unclear’ in both. Compared to surgery,

PAIR plus albendazole obtained similar cyst disappearance and mean cyst diameter with fewer adverse events (32% versus 84%, P < 0.001) and fewer days in hospital (mean +/- SD) (4.2 + 1.5 versus 12.7 + 6.5 days, P < 0.001). Compared to albendazole, PAIR with or without albendazole obtained significantly more (P < 0.01) cyst reduction and symptomatic relief.\n\nAuthors’ conclusions\n\nPAIR seems promising, but there is insufficient evidence to support or refute PAIR with or without benzimidazole coverage for treating patients with uncomplicated hepatic hydatid cyst. Further well-designed randomised clinical Selleck Trichostatin A trials are necessary to address the topic.”
“MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a class of powerful

gene expression regulators. Acting at the post-transcriptional level, miRNAs modulate the this website expression of at least one-third of the mRNAs that are encoded by the human genome. The expression of a single gene can be regulated by several miRNAs, and every miRNA has more than one target gene. Thus, the miRNA regulatory circuit, which affects essential cellular functions, is of enormous complexity. Moreover, a fundamental role for miRNAs has been determined in the onset and progression of human cancers. Here, we summarize the main alterations in miRNA expression

that have been identified in thyroid neoplasias and examine the mechanisms through which miRNA deregulation might promote thyroid cell transformation. We also discuss how the emerging knowledge on miRNA deregulation could be harnessed for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid neoplasias.”
“BACKGROUND: Accurate estimations of hepatitis B virus transmission risk for any region in Bosnia and Herzegovina are not clearly established. We aimed to determine levels of risk associated with intrafamilial transmission of hepatitis B infection within families in our region.\n\nPATIENTS AND METHODS: Family members of 81 chronic carriers of hepatitis Immunology & Inflamm inhibitor B surface antigen (>6 months positive and considered as index case) were tested for hepatitis B markers. For family members, we recorded their age, sex, and family relationship to the index case, and vaccination status.\n\nRESULTS: The proportion of HBsAg positive family members was 25/207 (12.1%), while the proportion of family members with evidence of exposure to HBV was 80/207 (38.6%). Only 17/207 (8.2%) family members had evidence of past HBV vaccination. Age was found to be a significant predictor of HBV exposure of family members (odds ratio 1.05, 95% Cl 1.03-1.07, P<.001). In a multivariate analysis, HBsAg positivity was associated with a female index case (odds ratio 11.31, 95% Cl 3.73-34.32, P<.

Thus, the detailed composition of SOA was only slightly influence

Thus, the detailed composition of SOA was only slightly influenced by the presence or absence of hydroxyl radical scavenging hexane. The negative-ion mass spectra of the SOA contained four groups of peaks with increasing mass spectral complexity corresponding to increasing molecular weight. The mean values of 0:C decreased from 0.55 to 0.42 with increasing molecular weight, but the

mean value of H:C, approximately 1.5, did not change with increasing molecular weight. The molecular formulas with the highest VX-770 clinical trial relative abundances in Groups I and II contained 5-7 and 7-10 oxygen atoms and 3-4 and 5-7 double bond equivalents, respectively. The molecular formulas with the highest relative abundances in Groups III and IV contained 10-13 and 13-16 oxygen atoms and 7-9 and 9-11 double bond equivalents, respectively. AZD5582 mw Observations of the oxygen content

and the double bond equivalents of the SOA products suggest a complex mixture of accretion reaction mechanisms, without an easily confirmable dominating pathway. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Polylactide (PLA) was copolymerized with polybutadiene (PBD) to improve its impact properties. Triblock copolymers of poly(lactide-b-butadiene-b-lactide) (PLBDL) were obtained by the ring opening polymerization of lactide using tin 2-ethylhexanoate (Sn(Oct)(2)) and hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPBD) as a catalyst and macroinitiator, respectively. PLA and PLBDL were blended at 5, 10, and 15 wt% PLBDL. After blending, the samples exhibited a shift in the T (g) of PLA, which means that PLBDL and PLA are compatible. The tensile strength and Young’s modulus decreased with increasing PLBDL. On the other hand, the PLA/PLBDL blend containing 10 wt% PLBDL showed a 4 fold increase in impact strength. In addition, the elongation

Sotrastaurin mouse at break of the blend containing 10 wt% PLBDL was 467%, showing a 27 fold increase compared to neat PLA. This suggests that the PBD chains on the PLBDL backbone have a significant effect on the impact properties of PLA.”
“Carbon nanotube dispersion in polymer matrix is one of the most crucially important aspects in carbon nanotube/polymer composites. This paper is aimed to discuss the considerable improvement in dispersion of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix that was attained through bio-functionalization of MWCNTs. Initially, for getting better dispersion in water, pure MWCNTs have been functionalized by L-phenylalanine amino acid. The functionalized MWCNTs (f-MWCNTs) show much enhanced solubility in water. So, effects of modified MWCNT on dispersion in PVA matrix and certain properties of the resulting composites, like; mechanical, thermal and morphological properties were studied. The prepared composites were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy.