Association between scoliosis and pregnancy outcome was studied before. Confounding conclusions
prevent proper counseling of patients. Appropriate statistical analysis of a suitable cohort is helpful in resolving this issue. A retrospective population-based study comparing all singleton pregnancies of women with and without documented scoliosis was conducted. Deliveries occurred between the years 1988 and 2009. Multiple logistic regression models were used to control for confounders. Out of 229,116 patients which were included in our cohort, 0.043% (n = 98) had a documented scoliosis. These patients had higher rates of fertility treatments (7.1% vs. 1.6%; p < 0.001). Scoliosis was found to be significantly associated
GANT61 with labor induction (36.7% vs. 26.3 %; p = 0.02) and cesarean deliveries (21.4% vs. 13.1%; p = 0.014). Using multiple logistic regression models, BEZ235 inhibitor with CD as the outcome variable, controlling for confounders such as nulliparity, labor induction and maternal age, scoliosis was not found to be an independent risk factor for CD (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.9-2.7; p = 0.121). Scoliosis is not a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome, and specifically for labor dystocia.”
“Objective: To review the pharmacology (absorption, metabolism, distribution, elimination, and contraindications) of incretin-based agents currently available and in regulatory review for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes.
Data sources: Medline search of all relevant clinical and review articles.
Study selection: English-language articles pertinent to the pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors were reviewed for relevance.
Data extraction: Data pertinent to the pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of GLP-1 agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors were extracted and used.
Data synthesis: Incretin hormones are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract following meal ingestion, the two most important selleck products of which are glucose-dependent
insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and GLP-1. Patients with type 2 diabetes have an impaired response to GIP, while intravenous GLP-1 has been shown to increase insulin secretion in response to elevated glucose levels. Incretin-based agents include GLP-1 receptor agonists, which mimic endogenous GLP-1, and DPP-4 inhibitors (e. g., sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin, alogliptin), which inhibit the breakdown of endogenous incretin hormones. GLP-1 receptor agonists stimulate insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner and suppress glucagon secretion with a low risk of hypoglycemia. The GLP-1 receptor agonists are further differentiated as either human analogues (e. g., liraglutide) or synthetic exendin-based mimetics (e. g.