burgdorferi with Triton X-100 (Fig. 2b, lanes 1 and 2). In the presence of Triton X-100, all three proteins were completely digested by proteinase K at final concentrations
of 40, 400 (Fig. 2b, lanes 4 and 6) and 4000 (not shown) μg mL−1. In the absence of Triton X-100, BmpA and OspA were digested by proteinase K at final concentrations of Dinaciclib cell line 40 and 400 μg mL−1 (Fig. 2b, lanes 3 and 5); FlaB was not (Fig. 2b, lanes 3 and 5). The susceptibility of BmpA and OspA to proteinase K in intact B. burgdorferi indicates that BmpA, like OspA, is exposed on the surface of B. burgdorferi. The insensitivity of FlaB to proteinase K in intact organisms is consistent with its location in the periplasmic space below the surface membrane (Bunikis & Barbour, 1999). The surface exposure of BmpA in B. burgdorferi B31 was further confirmed by dual-label indirect immunofluorescence. Intact borrelia cells were double labeled in solution with optimal dilutions of monospecific anti-rBmpA and anti-OspA antisera or anti-rBmpA and anti-FlaB antisera. Similar dilutions of preimmunization rabbit Ig were used
as controls. Intact B. burgdorferi showed dual labeling of their surface with anti-rBmpA and anti-OspA antibodies (Fig. 3), but remained unlabeled by anti-FlaB (Fig. 3) or preimmunization Ig (Fig. 3). After permeabilization of the outer membrane by methanol fixation, B. burgdorferi cells were labeled by all three antibodies (Fig. 3), but not Obeticholic Acid mouse by preimmunization Ig (Fig. 3). These results confirm the results of cell fractionation and proteinase K treatment experiments and indicate that BmpA is exposed on the surface of B. burgdorferi cells (Cox et al., 1996). Previous work with monoclonal anti-BmpA antibodies
indicated that BmpA was resistant to treatment with proteinase K in intact borrelia and suggested its lack of exposure on the surface of these cells (Bunikis & Barbour, 1999). However, it was not clear from this earlier study whether the epitopes recognized by this monoclonal antibody were potentially exposed on the surface of borrelial cells and whether the epitopes it recognized were only found on BmpA. Experiments with Clomifene a different monoclonal anti-BmpA antibody and biotin-labeled intact borrelia suggested that BmpA was probably associated with the cytoplasmic membrane (Sullivan et al., 1994). Here again, the epitope recognized was not identified and the reactivity of this antibody with the other Bmp proteins was not determined. A third series of experiments concluded that BmpA and FlaB were detected with rat antisera only when the outer membrane was disrupted, but again, the specificity of the antisera against other Bmp proteins was not examined (Cox & Radolf, 2001). The monospecificity of our anti-rBmpA reagent and its lack of reactivity with BmpB, BmpC and BmpD in dot immunobinding and 2D-NEPHGE is the probable explanation for the differences between our results and those of previous workers (Sullivan et al.