3 mu g), levels of estradiol benzoate reduced the choice on the high-reward lever. Interestingly, both an ER alpha agonist (propyl-pyrazole triol (PPT)) and an ER beta agonist (diarylpropionitrile (DPN)) increased choice on the high-reward lever when administered independently, but when these two agonists
JPH203 were combined, a decrease in choice for the high-reward lever was observed. The effects of estradiol, PPT, and DPN were more pronounced 24 h post-administration, suggesting that these effects may be genomic in nature. Together, these results demonstrate that estradiol modulates cost/benefit decision making in females, whereby concomitant activation of ER alpha and beta receptors shifts the decision criteria and reduces preference for larger, yet more costly rewards. Neuropsychopharmacology (2012) 37, 390-401; doi:10.1038/npp.2011.176; published online 31 August 2011″
“To evaluate whether alexithymia in alcohol-dependent patients is a personality trait or a state-dependent phenomenon related to depression and anxiety, we evaluated absolute stability (the extent to which alexithymia scores change
over time) and relative stability (the extent to which relative differences among individuals remain the same over time) of alexithymia during alcohol withdrawal. Seventy alcohol-dependent inpatients were assessed for alexithymia, depression and anxiety with the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory at find more the onset of withdrawal, after 2 days and
2 weeks. Paired t-tests and correlational analyses were performed to evaluate absolute and relative stability of alexithymia and hierarchical regression analyses to assess whether alexithymia was Phospholipase D1 related to anxiety and depression. Alexithymia decreased significantly from onset to end of withdrawal, but two of its three subfactors remained stable. Alexithymia scores at onset correlated significantly with scores at end, after partialling out the effects of depression and anxiety. In conclusion, the relative stability of alexithymia contrasting with large decreases in depression and anxiety during alcohol withdrawal supports the view that alexithymia is a stable personality trait rather than a state-dependent phenomenon. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) infect a wide range of host species including domestic poultry and wild birds; also. AIVs may infect humans in whom some highly pathogenic viruses (HPAIV) may cause acute fatal disease. Accurate laboratory diagnosis of AIV infections requires time-consuming and logistically complex precautionary measures for shipment of specimens or viruses to avoid biohazard exposure. The feasibility was investigated of the Flinders Technology Associates filter paper (FTA (R) card) for infectivity of AIVs and to preserve viral RNA for detection by RT-qPCR, sequencing and by DNA microarray assay.