Granular neurons from the dentate gyrus and neurons of your neocortex have been preserved. Necrotic cells have been characterized by early cytoplasmic swelling or from the shrinkage of your cytoplasm and nucleus. Some karyorrhectic cells and cells with granular degeneration on the chromatin had been also observed inside the stratum pyramidale of CA and the entorhinal and piriform cortices, at h soon after kainic acid injection. Immunohistochemistry In manage rats, Bcl , Bcl x and Bax immunoreactivity had been observed in neurons with the cerebral cortex, pyramidal neurons of your hippocampus, granule cells and hilar neurons on the dentate gyrus, amygdala, striatum and thalamus. The immunoreactivity was localized in the cytoplasm like a fine granular precipitate. Loss of Bcl , Bcl x and Bax immunoreactivity was observed in lots of necrotic neurons of your pyramidal cell layer with the hippocampus and neurons within the entorhinal and piriform cortices, but immunoreactivity was preserved in other necrotic cells following kainic acid administration with the unique time factors of the review. Similarly, Bcl , Bcl x and Bax have been also current in some karyorrhectic cells and in cells with granular degeneration from the chromatin, but immunoreactivity was misplaced in many other individuals .
Modifications from the intensity in the immunostaining have been observed equally in neurons on the hippocampus, entorhinal and piriform cortices, amygdala, and picked thalamic nuclei . Enhanced Bcl , Bax and Bcl x immunoreactivity was not observed in these areas at any time stage within the review. In contrast, Bax immunoreactivity was slightly enhanced within the cytoplasm of neurons in the dentate gyrus at h following kainic acid injection. Modifications inside the Ponatinib subcellular distribution of Bax had been observed at h submit kainic acid administration, as some dying cells within the entorhinal cortex and CA region on the hippocampus showed Bax immunoreactivity within their nuclei . Western blotting Western blots to Bcl showed just one band at about p in control and kainic acid handled animals at h and h. The intensity of your band was similar in handle and kainic acid handled rats throughout the time period studied.
Western blots to Bax showed a single band at about p whose intensity was the same in management and kainic acid treated rats at h and h. Westerns blots to Bcl x disclosed two bands, one particular at about p, another at about p. The intensity of the two bands was exactly the same in handle and kainic acid handled brains during the timecourse of this review. No differences during the intensity in the bands of Bcl , Bcl x and Bax had been observed amongst kainic acid affected parts, hippocampus and entorhinal buy Vandetanib cortices, and kainic acid preserved neocortex during the period studied The exact same success were observed inside the 3 sets of experiments carried out at different days.
Analysis from the shape from the clonogenic survival curves showed that ICclone AZD HQPA did not drastically radiosensitize another cell lines including individuals with compromised p . On top of that, Tao et al. reported also a minor radiosensitizing effect of Aurora B kinase inhibition utilizing AZD in two cell lines with compromised p function. Inhibition of repopulation was the major mechanism by which AZD HPQA lowered the TCD values during the existing report at minimal concentrations. Concomitant exposure to ICclone AZD HPQA significantly lowered the daily repopulation of H and H. The reduction in repopulation in plaque monolayers achieved by AZD HPQA therapy in the course of radiotherapy was similar to the effect on proliferation in very low density cell monolayers . Applying fractionated irradiation at Gy day permitted us to research the impact of AZD HPQA on repopulation in H plaque monolayers for population doubling instances. In comparison, cells seeded at e cells cm in monolayer will grow to be confluent soon after two to four cell doublings. We observed that tumor cell density impacted AZD HPQA effectiveness in the monolayer development assay with its largest effect in low density monolayers.
In vivo, equivalent circumstances could possibly be achieved on the finish of radiotherapy, once the tumor cell density gets lower. Clinical data imply that repopulation could be the big issue promoting resistance of lung cancer or squamous cell carcinomas to radiotherapy . Recently, the Radiation Treatment Oncology Group announced that based upon an interim evaluation of trial participants, no survival benefit will be anticipated from typical fractionation inside the trial Kinase Inhibitor Library selleckchem assessing dose escalation from Gy to Gy combined with carboplatin paclitaxel chemotherapy Cetuximab . Amongst other people, repopulation could possibly be a major contributing aspect to this unfavorable getting. AZD HPQA appears to inhibit repopulation mainly by way of generation of polyploid cells by endoreplication of mitotic cells. We display that exposure to ICclone AZD HPQA increased the fraction of N cells in lower density monolayers. These AZD HPQA concentrations are achievable in patients with reliable malignant tumors .
Though endoreplicated cells may possibly later lower their DNA material by cytokinesis , our data indicate they retain a lower possible for tumor repopulation. The TCD for single dose irradiation was decreased from . Gy to . Gy for H cultures made polyploid by exposure to large AZD HPQA concentrations. This is certainly in accordance with other reports that endoreplicated polyploid axitinib cells have markedly lowered long run colony forming capabilities after inhibition of Aurora kinases . The AZD HPQA concentrations utilised right here on NSCLC cell lines had been within the exact same assortment as individuals put to use by Aihara et al. to inactivate with the cells and make polyploid cells in the panel of hepatocellular carcinoma lines .
Representative locations have been picked for ultrathin sectioning and viewed that has a JEM transmission electron microscope working at kV. Statistical examination All information had been expressed as the suggest SD. The data proven inside the examine have been obtained in not less than 3 independent experiments performed within a parallel manner unless otherwise indicated. Statistical examination was carried out using an unpaired, two tailed Pupil?s t check. All comparisons were made relative to untreated controls and significance of variation was indicated as P . and P . Success E Platinum inhibits cell viability in tumor cells To investigate the likely inhibition of cell growth by E Platinum in human cancer cells, we primary performed MTT assay. The viability inhibitory results of E Platinum on cancer cell lines containing colon carcinoma cell lines , gastric carcinoma cell lines , and hepatocellular carcinoma cell line have been evaluated as well as the IC values of E Platinum as proven in Fig. C had been . . . . . . . . and . . M for h remedy, respectively. MTT assay showed that E Platinum inhibited the viability of colon carcinoma cells more potently than that of gastric carcinoma or hepatocellular carcinoma cells , suggesting that colon carcinoma cells possessed a rather increased sensitivity to E Platinum related to oxaliplatin .
It was also observed compound libraries kinase inhibitor that the degree of inhibition was, to some extent, correlated with exposure time at a provided E Platinum concentration . The survival ratio values of E Platinum on gastric carcinoma BGC cells had been , and obtained for and h therapy, respectively . The results over illustrate the enhanced result of . M of E Platinum was in a position to acquire over inhibition of gastric carcinoma BGC cancer cells immediately after h E Platinum inhibits the development of transplanted tumors in vivo Tumor xenografts transplanted by human gastric carcinoma BGC cells were applied to assess the antitumor effect of E Platinum in vivo. The bodyweight of tumors was substantially decreased for groups taken care of with . and mg kg E Platinum and mg kg oxaliplatin . Tumor inhibition rates of . and . were observed. Furthermore, tumor volume in E Platinum or oxaliplatin treated mice was under that in adverse management mice .
Values of T C while in the . and mg kg E Platinum and mg kg oxaliplatin group have been . and respectively, indicating that E Platinum inhibited tumor development kinase inhibitors kinase inhibitor in a dose dependent manner throughout the day treatment. Meanwhile, in contrast with mice handled with . usual saline, mg kg oxaliplatin remedy exhibited considerable inhibition of nude mice fat. In contrast, weight inhibition was observed much less during the . and mg kg E Platinum treated mice , indicating that E Platinum could get the job done with decrease toxicity as well as evident antitumor result in vivo. E Platinum induces autophagy initiated with formation of autophagosome in BGC cells Cells were analyzed by confocal fluorescence microscopy. As proven in Fig. A, remedy of BGC cells with .
Endothelial cell activation and dysfunction can play a prominent function in physiological processes, this kind of as angiogenesis, and while in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis.hV ascular endothelial development issue may be a potent angiogenic component which could act as an endothelial cell mitogen and seems to be a significant survival agent for endothelial cells for the duration of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. VEGF has become proven to mediate this latter function, in element through the induction of Bcl expression plus the activation of the P kinase Akt PKB signaling pathway.A dditionally, VEGF was reported to improve XIAP and Survivin protein amounts . and . fold, respectively, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, suggesting that VEGF mediated survival might be, in component, mediated by inducing expression of these IAPs. The authors propose that these benefits increase the likelihood of therapeutically focusing on XIAP or Survivin in antiangiogenic therapy as being a implies of suppressing tumor growth, as well as straight focusing on tumor cells that express these survival proteins. Constant with all the over observations, a separate study reported that stimulation of quiescent endothelial cells with mitogens, which include VEGF and fundamental fibroblast development issue , improved Survivin expression somewhere around fold.
Survivin protein concentration was minimum while in the endothelium mTOR inhibitors kinase inhibitor of nonproliferating capillaries of ordinary skin, whereas it became massively up regulated in newly formed blood vessels of granulation tissue in vivo. Ectopic expression of Survivin lowered caspase exercise and counteracted apoptosis induced by TNF a cycloheximide in endothelial cells suggesting that antiapoptotic proteins may possibly play a vital role inside the angiogenic system. IMMUNE Illness As outlined over, elevated action or expression of antiapoptotic proteins can adversely influence the servicing of nutritious cells by suppressing apoptosis. In contrast, lack of antiapoptotic protein perform can lead to extreme apoptosis. A latest example of this notion was described for cartilage hair hypoplasia syndrome a rare autosomal recessive illness characterized by elevated T cell apoptosis and cellmediated or combined immunodeficiency.
This examine reported that CHH was linked with altered expression of Fas, Fas ligand , IAP, Bax, and Bcl . Elevated Aprepitant apoptosis in CHH correlated with elevated expression of Fas, FasL, and Bax and decreased expression of Bcl and IAPs compared with all the handle. These data recommend that enhanced apoptosis of T cells contributes to lymphopenia and immunodeficiency in CHH, and that increased T cell death, in this instance, is mediated by altered expression of pro and antiapoptotic proteins. Changes in Fas, FasL, and Bcl expression have also been reported in circulating T cells in sufferers with HIV infection even further suggesting an issue with regulation of apoptosis genes in immunodeficiency states.
In this context, it had been recommended that mitochondrial membrane permeability transition is usually a possible mechanism of diclofenac induced apoptosis in hepatocytes, and it had been observed that diclofenac induced MPT in isolated rat liver mitochondria and in key cultured hepatocytes . Lately, it’s been reported that reactive oxygen species are concerned in diclofenac induced apoptosis of cultured gastric cells and nephrotoxicity in vivo and that oxidative damage in the mitochondrial degree is involved in MPT induction in diclofenac treated hepatocytes . The mechanisms underlying the induction of apoptosis by diclofenac in hepatocytes, gastric cells, and kidney are reported, but the causal sequence and molecular mechanism of diclofenac induced apoptosis in leukocytes haven’t been entirely elucidated. The elucidation with the diclofenac induced apoptotic mechanism might be significant for avoiding its unwanted effects or applying diclofenac for the treatment method of human cancer.
Within the basis of those data, we studied the mechanism of diclofenac induced apoptosis of promyelocytic leukemia, HL cells, and the usefulness of diclofenac for antileukemic therapy. Diclofenac inhibited the growth of HL cells within a concentration dependent method. Total suppression was observed at concentrations higher than AM at h . Diclofenac induced characteristic morphological modifications Maraviroc price of apoptosis but not necrosis, this kind of as cell shrinkage and nuclear fragmentation as proven by staining cells with Hoechst and propidium iodide . The DNA content material of cells was quantified by flow cytometry of propidium iodide stained cells, which also permitted evaluation of which phase from the cell cycle the cells had been in along with the quantity of apoptotic cells. We noticed that diclofenac was able to induce cell cycle arrest at the G M checkpoint, thereby preventing cell division and triggering cells to get a G DNA written content . Diclofenac induces DNA fragmentation, which can be suppressed by z VAD fmk and Ac IETD CHO, but not by CsA Diclofenac induced DNA fragmentation of HL cells within a time and concentration dependent method .
Obvious DNA fragmentation was observed at concentrations higher than AM at h, TGF-beta inhibitor and time course examination exposed that DNA fragmentation grew to become obvious h following incubation with AM diclofenac. As MPT and caspases perform important roles inside the operation of apoptosis, we investigated the effects of CsA, a specific inhibitor of MPT, and z VAD fmk, a universal caspase inhibitor, on diclofenac induced apoptosis of HL cells. The diclofenac induced DNA fragmentation was strongly suppressed by AM z VAD fmk, but not by AM CsA. Moreover, diclofenac induced DNA fragmentation was suppressed by pretreatment with AM Ac IETD CHO, a caspase inhibitor, exhibiting the involvement of caspase in the system of apoptosis .
As our effects indicated that apoptosis induced through the carotenoid is caspase dependent, it truly is tempting to speculate that caspase may well exert its result on caspases and by means of its action on caspase . Part of mitochondrial membrane probable and PTP proteins Release of proapoptotic proteins like cytochrome c into the cytosol is really a important stage all through apoptosis activated by means of the mitochondrial pathway , even though the release of cytochrome c could possibly or could not be accompanied from the breakdown on the mitochondrial membrane potential . Our findings confirmed earlier reports that the apoptotic system induced by carotene will involve mitochondrial permeabilization . Reduction of mitochondrial membrane likely has been proposed to become induced by way of formation of PTP composed of ANT found on the inner mitochondrial membrane, cyclophilin D positioned within the intermembrane area, and VDAC positioned with the outer mitochondrial membrane . Overexpression within the PTP protein ANT is proven to induce apoptosis in T fibroblast cells and inhibition of VDAC continues to be reported to inhibit the apoptosis induced by etoposide, paclitaxel, and staurosporin therapy .
Our information by using particular inhibitors unveiled that the PTP parts were not associated with carotene induced Perifosine apoptosis, suggesting the possibility on the position of other parts at the mitochondrial degree. Involvement of ROS in apoptosis Apoptosis induced by carotene is reported to be linked with ROS generation in WiDr colon adenocarcinoma and HL human leukemia cell types . We observed ROS production as a measure of oxidation of DCFH as early as h along with a major expand in oxidation of DHE during later stages of apoptosis. Having said that, delineation of reactive oxygen species will not be feasible because of constrained specificities within the fluorescent probes. It appears from our data that the original release of ROS is known as a direct result of carotene, and ROS detected at later on phases may be as a consequence of a breakdown during the mitochondrial membrane potential primary to amplification with the apoptosis operation. Generation of ROS at original likewise as later on stages of apoptosis is documented in other methods also .
Our findings alongside the earlier reviews support the see that ROS may perhaps play a dual function in apoptosis, both as activators of permeability transition or as solutions with the breakdown in likely, depending within the apoptotic stimulus . Involvement of Bcl and BclXL in apoptosis The antiapoptotic proteins Bcl and BclXL are significant members of the Bcl loved ones and maintain the integrity of mitochondria both right or by sequestering the proapoptotic proteins .We Rutaecarpine observed that expression of Bclwas downregulated in a time dependent method, confirming the earlier reviews over the involvement of Bcl in carotene induced apoptosis .
The quantitative examination on the fluorescence photographs was carried out working with Zeiss Rel. picture processing program . Soon after background subtraction, the typical fluorescence intensity per pixel was calculated. In the course of control experiments, bleaching with the probe was negligible ASTC a cells co transfected with YFP Bax and Bid CFP were grown within the coverslip of the chamber. The chamber was placed to the stage in the LSM microscope for overall performance of acceptor photobleaching. The acceptor photobleaching was carried out with all the highest intensity of nm laser, the photos of YFP and CFP emission in and out of the bleaching place have been recorded and processed with Zeiss Rel. image processing application . Confirmation of cell apoptosis ASTC a cellswere cultured in wellmicroplate at a density of cells well for h. The cells were then divided into five groups and exposed to UV irradiation at fluence of and mJ cm, respectively. Cell cytotoxicity was assessed with CCK based on the manufacturer’s directions. OD, the absorbance worth at nm, was read with a nicely plate reader , along with the OD is inversely proportional for the degree of cell apoptosis.
Nutlin-3 SDS Page and Western blotting In the indicated time soon after UV irradiation, cells were scraped in the dish, then washed twice with ice cold phosphate buffered saline , and lysed with ice cold lysis buffer for min on ice. The lysates were centrifuged at rpm for min at C, and the protein concentration was established. Equivalent samples have been subjected to SDS Webpage on gel. The proteins have been then transferred onto nitrocellulose membranes, and probed with indicated antibody , followed by IRDye secondary antibody . Detection was carried out applying the LI COR Odyssey Infrared Imaging Technique Effects Cell death induced by UV irradiation isn’t impacted by Z IETD fmk, but delayed by Pifithrin To set up a good UV irradiation dose to induce apoptosis, ASTC a cells have been irradiated with many different fluence. Cells apoptosis have been analyzed making use of Cell Counting Kit at h soon after UV irradiation. The OD value, an indicator of cells apoptosis, was measured.
The OD value decreased since the irradiation fluence enhanced, ROCK inhibitor which indicated that the results of UV irradiation on apoptosis of ASTC a cells have been dosedependent . To observe the effects of Z IETD fmk and Pifithrin on UV induced apoptosis, we added Z IETD fmk or Pifithrin to cells h ahead of UV irradiation, cells apoptosis have been analyzed applying Cell Counting Kit at h , h, h, h, h right after mJ cm UV irradiation during the presence or absence of Z IETD fmk or Pifithrin . The results showed that cells apoptosis had been very little impacted during the presence of Z IETD fmk, on the other hand, cells apoptosis have been delayed by a number of hrs during the presence of Pifithrin .
By analogy, endosomal PKD can be involved with translocation of GLUT containing vesicles to the sarcolemma of cardiac myocytes. Within this case, the endosomal compartment would represent the supply of your membrane bound PKD in nonstimulated cells. This population of PKD bound to endosomal membranes is then expected to turn into activated by contraction oligomycin, resulting in fission of GLUT containing vesicles. Subsequently, the excised GLUT vesicles translocate on the sarcolemma, top rated to a rise in cellular glucose uptake. Additionally, we speculate that PMA induced phosphorylation of cytoplasmic PKD would cause a membrane attachment to non endosomal compartments explaining the non involvement of this PKD subpopulation in GLUT translocation. Concluding remarks The primary finding while in the current examine could be the obvious function of PKD in contraction induced GLUT mediated glucose uptake. Within the light of novel evidence from transgenic mouse versions with blunted AMPK signaling but using a retained response of skeletal muscle glucose uptake to contraction , PKD instead of AMPK could possibly be the key protein kinase associated with contraction signaling to GLUT translocation.
Even so, a alot more balanced view of integration of PKD in contraction approved drug library selleck induced glucose uptake would include that contraction induced GLUT translocation would call for the input of two parallel pathways, i.e AMPK signaling and PKD signaling, both of which can be important to move GLUT on the sarcolemma while in the contracting heart. This dual signaling input is not really a novel notion in regulation of cellular glucose uptake, for the reason that also insulin induced GLUT translocation is established to depend on simultaneous and parallel activation of the wortmannin delicate phosphatidylinositol kinase protein kinase B signaling axis and a wortmannin insensitive pathway beginning with all the phosphorylation from the adaptor protein Cbl from the insulin receptor and resulting in activation of a minor GTP binding protein TC . Interestingly, within a look for myocardial substrates for PKD, a yeast hybrid screen of the human cardiac library yielded various proteins involved in contraction mechanics.
These proteins asenapine involve troponin I, myosin binding protein C and telethonin, and the notion that they serve as direct targets for PKD has been subsequently verified in in vitro kinase assays . Specifically, the capacity of PKD to phosphorylate troponin I at Ser implicates a position of PKD in the acceleration of relaxation by means of improved myofilament Ca sensitivity and crossbridge cycling . General, the PKD mediated phosphorylation of myofilament proteins mixed with GLUT translocation could implicate PKD within the broad responses with the heart to contraction.
CAPN expression up regulated during the HeLa cells taken care of with IGF , a development element activatingAkt, but didn’t in cells.Akt involves 3 isoforms: Akt, Akt, and Akt. Akt is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues; Akt is predominantly expressed in insulin target tissues, such as extra fat cells, liver and skeletal muscle. Akt is much less broadly expressed, currently being higher within the brain but in addition expressed in at least 1 insulinresponsive cell type, namely T L adipocytes . So, we focused on Akt and Akt. Even so, Akt isoform specific substrates and molecular mechanisms that are accountable for this distinction have remained elusive. Certainly, over Akt substrates which have been characterized to date, and only just a few of them have been evaluated for isoform specificity. These involve the cell cycle regulators p and SKP that are Akt exact targets, whereas MDM and AS are exclusively phosphorylated by Akt. Inside the present study, CAPN protein showed very little or no alter within the cells with Akt or Akt siRNA transient transfection on the indicated time. However, CAPN was downregulated in cells by lentivirus mediated Akt RNAi stably. The explanation is the fact that CAPN protein may perhaps not be influenced by transient transfection of Akt siRNA.
Moreover, CAPN is up regulated in MEF cells with Akt overexpression. The outcomes show that CAPN is regulated GW9662 by PIK Akt. mTOR will be the downstream gene with the PIK Akt pathway and rapamycin is its inhibitor . Ample proof demonstrates that function of rapamycin is time and room dependent. The cells handled with rapamycin for h in accordance to the report that Akt action increaseswith quick rapamycin treatment method occasions but is inhibited by prolonged treatment . CAPN protein was down regulated making use of mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and this additional indicated that Akt signal pathwaymayregulate CAPN throughmTOR. GSK may be the targetgeneofAkt . Cells treatedwith the GSK inhibitor LiCl, led to CAPN protein reduce, which indicates CAPN is regulated by GSK . When cells treated with LiCl and LY, CAPN protein showed greater inhibition. This even more implied that PIK Akt regulates by GSK . CAPN protein half time was shortened from about h to h once the cells have been treated with LY, which recommended that PIK can stabilize CAPN.
Akt did not alter the CAPN half time . mTOR weakened the CAPN protein stability ,which may perhaps be related to its means to manage protein transition. CAPN might degrade via the proteasome pathway by PIK Akt GSK . mTOR didn’t influence the CAPN protein stability and its degradation . To investigate CAPN promoter activity, ten deleted promoters had been constructed, and their exercise was detected in a number of cell lines, as well as the promoter? bp showed the strongest activity comparedwith SB 431542 sb-431542 selleckchem another deleted promoters.
Stained cells had been analyzed on the Becton Dickinson FACS Calibur flow cytometer with CellQuest computer software. Proteasome inhibitors boost TRAIL induced apoptosis within a selection of cancer cells . We further examined the effect of proteasome inhibitors on TRAIL resistant glioma cells, concentrating on glioma cell lines, principal cultures and GSCs. Therapy in the U cells with TRAIL or MG for h didn’t induce a substantial apoptotic result . In contrast a combined TRAIL and MG therapy induced apoptosis of about from the cells as determined by PI staining and FACS analysis and by intracellular staining of active caspase . Similar effects had been observed in the TRAIL resistant cells, LNZ and LN and in the A cells which can be much more sensitive to TRAIL . Similarly, the two principal glioma cultures, HF and HF , underwent cell death only when treated with TRAIL and MG , as established by PI staining and Western blot examination of energetic caspase levels. We more examined the impact of an additional proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, about the response of glioma cells to TRAIL, and observed that comparable to MG , bortezomib sensitized the U cells and also the HF primary glioma cells to the apoptotic impact of TRAIL .
GSCs exhibit resistance to radiotherapy, chemotherapy Roscovitine CDK inhibitor and TRAIL . To examine the result of proteasome inhibitors on the sensitivity of GSCs to TRAIL, we employed 3 preparations of CD cells that have been produced from several GBM specimens . As previously described , the cells grew as spheroids, expressed CD and Sox, and differentiated towards the unique neuronal lineages upon plating on poly D ornithine coated plates in serum containing medium. Additionally the cells exhibited a capacity for self renewal and produced tumors that recapitulated the tumors of origin when injected intracranially . We located the 3 CD GSCs exhibited resistance to both TRAIL or MG and bortezomib , whereas a mixed treatment method of MG and TRAIL induced apoptosis in about of the cells as indicated by PI staining and FACS evaluation . The combined treatment method of your GSCs with TRAIL and MG also significantly decreased the capacity of the cells to create secondary neurospheres .
Similarly, treatment method with bortezomib and TRAIL also induced a substantial degree of cell apoptosis from the different GSC cultures and an elevated active caspase degree . Due to the fact TRAIL exerts a selective apoptotic impact in cancer cells , we examined no matter if the mixed therapy of proteasome inhibitors and TRAIL is also selective towards the glioma cells and won’t induce cell death in typical astrocytes and EPO906 neural stem cells. We employed human regular astrocytes, rat subventricular zone neural progenitor cells and hESCs differentiated to neural precursor cells.