93 (95% CI = 0 91-0 95) Conclusions: (18)FDG PET-CT has moder

93 (95% CI = 0.91-0.95).\n\nConclusions: (18)FDG PET-CT has moderate sensitivity and specificity for detection of gastric cancer recurrence after surgical resection. Crown Copyright (c) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: TNF-alpha antagonists may increase the risk of herpes zoster (HZ), as well as the duration and severity. Recently, the monoclonal antibody ustekinumab, blocking the p40 subunit of IL-12 and IL-23, has been introduced for treating moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. There are no PubMed reports of HZ occurring in people receiving ustekinumab treatment. Common HZ was reported in clinical trials. Observation: Two patients with

severe psoriasis treated with ustekinumab developed severe contiguous multidermatomal HZ 1 and 9 months after treatment initiation. Discussion: The occurrence of HZ after the instauration of ustekinumab suggests a causal relationship. Indeed, Copanlisib research buy the inhibition of the p40 subunit of IL-12 shifts the immune response towards a Th1 profile with diminished IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha expression, decreasing the antiviral immune response. Conclusion: Ustekinumab is probably a risk factor this website for developing HZ. Anti-HZ vaccination prior to ustekinumab treatment should be considered. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“A new

species of flower flies is described from China (Sichuan & Yunnan: Hengduan Mountains), Sericomyia khamensis Thompson & Xie). A key is provided MK-1775 purchase to the species of the subtribe Sericomyiina found in China along with nomenclatural and taxonomical notes on them.”
“Encouraged by the interesting biological activities associated

with chalcones and benzo[b]furan derivatives, herein are reported the synthesis, spectroscopic identification and antibacterial activity of benzo[b]furan chalcone derivatives 6a-o derived from 1-(7-methoxy-2-(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)benzofuran-5-yl)ethanone 5 in a few high yielding steps from commercially available 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene and 5-iodovanillin and various benzaldehydes. The synthesized targets have been screened for their antibacterial activity against Escheria coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococus pyogenes, while using Norfloxacin as the standard drug. Among all the compounds 6a-o, the compounds 6n, 6o, 6l and 6m exhibit excellent to equipotent activity while the compounds having the alkoxy substituent in the series display good to moderate activity.”
“Background/aims. In this present study, we aimed: (i) To clarify if prediabetes is associated with subclinical inflammation independent of underlying obesity, and (ii) to evaluate the effect of postload glucose concentration on subclinical inflammation markers in a group of patients with elevated fasting glucose. Material and methods.

A definition of quality may differ according to the observers sta

A definition of quality may differ according to the observers standpoint

and numerous performance measures may contribute to overall quality. Patients, surgeons, anaesthetic assistants, recovery nurses, managers, and anaesthetic peers are each likely to have their own perspective on oanaesthetic quality’ and would perhaps suggest different metrics to measure it. Speed, efficiency, cost, interpersonal skills, complication rates, patient recorded outcome measures, and satisfaction are all valid as quality measures, but none alone captures anaesthetic quality. Performance data are frequently presented as single-dimension HIF cancer measurements (e.g. pain, postoperative nausea and vomiting, patient satisfaction), but this does not address the fact that two or more domains may be closely related (e.g. use of regional anaesthesia and quality of analgesia) or in opposition (e.g. use of regional anaesthesia and speed).\n\nWe introduce the concept of a operformance polygon’ as a tool to represent multidimensional performance assessment. This method of data presentation encourages balanced appraisal of anaesthetic quality.\n\nPerformance polygons may be used to compare individual performance with peers, published outcome norms, trends in performance over time, to explore aspects of team performance and potentially capture data that are required for

medical revalidation.\n\nPerformance polygons enable easy comparison with any relevant data set and are a visual tool that potentially has wider applications in healthcare

quality Compound high throughput screening improvement.”
“The search task of Luck, Hillyard, Mangun and Gazzaniga (1989) was optimised to test for the presence of a bilateral field advantage in the visual search capabilities of normal subjects. The modified design used geometrically regular arrays of 2, 4 or 8 items restricted to hemifields delineated by the vertical or horizontal meridian; the target, if present, appeared at one of two fixed positions per quadrant at an eccentricity of 11 deg. Group and individual performance data 17DMAG manufacturer were analysed in terms of the slope of response time against display-size functions (‘RT slope’). Averaging performance across all conditions save display mode (bilateral vs. unilateral) revealed a significant bilateral advantage in the form of a 21% increase in apparent item scanning speed for target detection; in the absence of a target, bilateral displays gave a 5% increase in speed that was not significant. Factor analysis by ANOVA confirmed this main effect of display mode, and also revealed several higher order interactions with display geometry, indicating that the bilateral advantage was masked at certain target positions by a crowding-like effect.\n\nIn a numerical model of search efficiency (i.e.

In order to use the best available evidence in clinical decision

In order to use the best available evidence in clinical decision making, reviewers should conduct systematic reviews or meta-analyses using rigorous research methods.”
“P>Objective:\n\nArterial stiffness index (SI) and reflection index (RI) from digital pulse contour

analysis have been shown to be good measures of arterial stiffness and may be useful in Geneticin nmr the evaluation of endothelial function. Finger skin temperature (FST) is also considered to reflect peripheral circulatory functions. We evaluated the reproducibility of SI, RI and FST before and after the exercise stress test.\n\nMethods:\n\nThe subjects were 36 children (16 boys, 20 girls) 6-8 years of age. We measured SI, RI and FST at rest both before and after the exercise stress test on a cycle ergometer and repeated these measurements within 5-14 days. The reproducibility of SI, check details RI and FST was evaluated by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), coefficients

of variation (CV%) and 95% limits of agreements.\n\nResults:\n\nSI had a greater reproducibility after the exercise stress test than before it (CV% 4 center dot 8 versus 6 center dot 3%, ICC 0 center dot 548 versus 0 center dot 438). RI had a better ICC (0 center dot 689 versus 0 center dot 416) but a higher CV% (28 center dot 6 versus 18 center dot 7%) after the exercise stress test than before it. Relative change in response to the exercise stress test in SI (-1 center dot 5% at first visit and 0 center dot 4% at second visit) was

not as dramatic as in RI (-49 center dot 3% at first visit and -46 center dot 5% at second visit). The reproducibility of FST was also better after the exercise test than before it (CV% 5 center dot 7 versus 10 center dot 0%, ICC 0 center dot 509 versus 0 center dot 503).\n\nConclusion:\n\nIn healthy children, the reproducibility of SI, RI and FST was relatively good, especially GS-1101 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor after the exercise stress test.”
“Children of school age spend a large part of their daily lives not only at home but also at school. The present study surveyed the possible health benefits of indoor plant intervention on the indoor environment for 15 students in 6 classrooms (4 classrooms with indoor plants and 2 classrooms without indoor plants) in 2 newly built elementary schools in Seoul, South Korea. Symptom degree of building-related illness was evaluated as sick school syndrome according to indoor plant placement. An observation of the air temperature of the classrooms for 3 months after indoor plant placement did not find a change in the classroom at School A but detect a decrease in the classroom at School B with or without indoor plants. Formaldehyde concentration in indoor air reduced with time spent in the classrooms at both schools, and was not affected by indoor plant placement.

We used a factorial design with two levels of watering and two le

We used a factorial design with two levels of watering and two levels of fertilization; this allowed us to test effects at both species and community level.\n\nResults\n\nThe

summed survival and total biomass of all transplants was significantly higher in the presence of neighbours than without neighbours, indicating a facilitative effect of neighbouring plants, but there were significant increases in only six of the ten species. The combined survival and biomass of all species increased with watering, survival decreased and biomass increased with fertilization, but only two species had significant responses to fertilization: Anenome parviflora decreased and Mertensia paniculata increased in biomass. Watering increased the biomass of Achillea millefolium, Festuca altaica and Solidago multiradiata; there were also some interaction learn more effects.\n\nConclusions\n\n(1) The presence of neighbours was generally facilitative. AZD3965 datasheet (2) Fertilization had negligible effects, and watering had minor beneficial effects. (3) This study demonstrates the importance of facilitation in structuring this boreal understorey community.”
“In this study, a global data set on size-fractionated chlorophyll distributions collected

in the open ocean (depth bigger than 400 m) is used to investigate phytoplankton community size structure in relation to temperature and inorganic nutrient availability in an attempt to identify the individual and shared effects of these 2 factors. The macroecological patterns show an increase in the fraction of large phytoplankton with increasing

nutrient availability and a decrease with increasing temperature. We empirically demonstrate that temperature has both a nutrient-independent effect and a nutrient-shared effect on phytoplankton community size structure. We argue that the nutrient-independent effect is likely a direct effect of temperature, whereas the nutrient-shared Fer-1 nmr effect may be an indirect effect of temperature (where thermal stratification influences the introduction of nutrients to surface waters). When regional differences in the average contribution of large cells were accounted for, the nutrient-independent effect of temperature explained 8% of the variation in phytoplankton community size structure compared with the 23% explained by the nutrient-shared effect. The results suggest that the relationship between phytoplankton community size structure and temperature change is the same in all ocean regions and leads to a decrease in the relative contribution of large cells in the community as temperature increases regardless of ambient nutrient availability.

Understanding determinants of intention to remain employed can le

Understanding determinants of intention to remain employed can lead to development of strategies that strengthen nurse retention. Incorporation of this knowledge in nurse education programmes is essential.”
“We have previously shown the adjuvant activity of propranolol (PRP) (a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist) using a vaccine

model for Salmonella typhimurium. In this study PRP was used as an adjuvant in combination with Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) whole blood stage (PWBS) antigens. BALB/c mice were immunized three times with a 2-week interval, either PWBS vaccine MX69 in vivo alone or in combination with the adjuvant alum or propranolol. The control group received phosphate buffered saline. Evaluation of the cellular and humoral immunity was performed by measurement of interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, lymphocyte proliferation, total IgG and IgG2a in the control and immunized groups. Furthermore, Clinical evaluations were carried out by analyze survival rate

and parasitemia of the mice. Our results showed that the mice immunized with propranolol induced higher levels of antibody, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha as well as stronger lymphocyte proliferative responses compared with other groups. This resulted in improved protective immunity against Plasmodium berghei. find more Administration of the PRP as an adjuvant in combination with the PWBS Antigen vaccine can shift the immune

responses to a T helper1 pattern and enhance the protective immunity.”
“Sex and age-matched wild-type and TCR transgenic mice were infected with cytomegalovirus (CMV) at 6 months of age and followed for 12 additional months to examine aging of the immune system. It was found that viral infection of C57B1/6 mice resulted in accelerated aging of the immune system as shown by a loss of CD8+28(+) cells and an accumulation of KLRG1(+) T cells. CMV infection of OT-1 transgenic mice had no influence on immune aging of these mice which nonetheless demonstrated an accumulation of CD8(+)28(-) and KLRG1(+) T cells with time. CD4(+) T cells were unaffected in either strain of mice. Thus, immunological aging was found to be due to both cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic factors. Persistent viral infections may accelerate immunological CCI-779 datasheet aging but consideration must be given to individual variation in the aging process. (C) 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is a trophic factor expressed by glial cells and different neuronal populations. Addition of FGF-2 to spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explants demonstrated that FGF-2 specifically increases motor neuron axonal growth. To further explore the potential capability of FGF-2 to promote axon regeneration, we produced a lentiviral vector (LV) to overexpress FGF-2 (LV-FGF2) in the injured rat peripheral nerve.

Dissatisfaction was defined as no change in symptoms, and/or de n

Dissatisfaction was defined as no change in symptoms, and/or de novo important symptoms.\n\nThe overall rate of good satisfaction was 74.7% (62/83), check details moderate satisfaction 15.6% (13/83), and only 9.6% (8/83) were not satisfied. There was no statistical difference among the six different groups (sacrocolpopexy only, plus TVT, plus TVT and hysterectomy, sacrocolpopexy and previous hysterectomy, sacrocolpopexy and TVT with previous hysterectomy), concerning the pre and post operative clinical signs and post operative symptoms. There was a statistically significant difference (p=0.038) regarding dissatisfaction and

prolapse relapse between the group that had a previous total hysterectomy combining sacrocolpopexy with TVT and all other groups. The most frequent post operative symptoms were stress incontinence, dysuria and constipation. No severe complications and mesh erosion were observed, despite the two cases of mesh detachment.\n\nConclusions: Laparoscopic double synthetic mesh sacrocolpopexy seems to be a safe and effective treatment of genito-urinary prolapse, with good overall long term outcomes and benefits of the minimal access approach. The presence of the remaining Epigenetics inhibitor cervix after subtotal hysterectomy, seems to enhance the results of laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy.. Further randomised studies are needed to confirm our results

and to compare this method to open and/or vaginal approach. Hippokratia 2009; 13 (2): 105-109″
“Genetic variability of modulus of elasticity (MOE) was investigated in three genetic trials, including two progeny (16 years old) and one clonal (19 years old) trials of hybrid larch (Larix

x eurolepis Henry). MOE was directly assessed on standing AZD1208 datasheet trees using the Rigidimeter, a bending device, and related to other traits including height, BH diameter and wood density. Mean MOE ranged from 5,183 to 9,228 MPa among families in the progeny trials and from 4,591 to 11,486 MPa in the clonal trial. Among traits studied, MOE was one of the most variable traits. It was strongly and positively related to wood density at both the individual and genotype mean levels. Interestingly too, wood stiffness did not seem, or only weakly, unfavourably linked to stem diameter at the phenotypical level, but it was negatively or not correlated to diameter at the genetic level. As well, MOE showed a high GxE stability over the two progeny trial sites. Narrow-sense heritabilities for MOE were moderate (around 0.36). In all three trials, they were lower than those for wood density or total height, and of the same level as for diameter. Improvement of wood stiffness of hybrid larch using the Rigidimeter seems possible and promising genetic gains are expected. Impacts of selection for growth traits on MOE are also discussed.”
“Micafungin concentrations in plasma and burn eschar after daily intravenous infusion (1 h) of micafungin (200 to 300 mg) were investigated for six patients with severe burns.

Affective/anxiety symptoms have been only rarely recorded Extrap

Affective/anxiety symptoms have been only rarely recorded. Extrapyramidal Selleckchem SYN-117 symptoms have been assessed mostly with the Simpson Angus scale (SAS), more frequently in combination with the abnormal involuntary movement scale (AIMS) and Barnes akathisia scale (BARS) recently. Non-motor adverse effects have been typically reported without a usage

of formal rating scales. Depending on the interest of investigation, other critical domains of the illness including functioning, cognition and subjective perspectives have been sporadically reported through the rating scales. The assessment scales were similarly utilized across the years, except for a numerical rise in scale utilization to rate the latter three domains in 2009. Conclusions: The PANSS

and set of AIMS, BARS and SAS, which are expected to take about 60 minutes to complete, are frequently utilized and may be regarded as a ‘standard’ in clinical trials for schizophrenia. Clinical implication of the findings and practical challenges with the existing scales are discussed. Psychopharmacology GS-9973 inhibitor Bulletin. 2011;44(1):18-31.”
“Blepharo-Cheilo-Dontic (BCD) syndrome is a rare condition characterised by abnormalities of the eyelid lip and teeth. A 12-year-old girl with BCD syndrome presented at the Dental Hospital following referral from the multi-disciplinary cleft lip and palate clinic. She had skeletal Class III relation, with left posterior cross bite, occlusal contacts on the second permanent molars with poor oral hygiene. The permanent units missing were 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 21, 22, 25, in the upper arch and 35, 34, 32 44 and 45 in the lower arch. This patient presented a complex aesthetic problem, which through multidisciplinary care resulted in a satisfactory aesthetic outcome. In this case report we present Autophagy inhibitor libraries the clinical management and the role of the overdenture in her dental management.”
“BACKGROUND: The use of extracorporeal life support in trauma casualties is limited by concerns regarding

hemorrhage, particularly in the presence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). We report the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)/interventional lung assist (iLA) as salvage therapy in trauma patients. High-flow technique without anticoagulation was used in patients with coagulopathy or TBI. METHODS: Data were collected from all adult trauma patients referred to one center for ECMO/iLA treatment owing to severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. RESULTS: Ten casualties had a mean (SD) Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 50.3 (10.5) (mean [SD] age, 29.8 [7.7] years; 60% male) and were supported 9.5 (4.5) days on ECMO (n = 5) and 7.6 (6.5) days on iLA (n = 5). All experienced blunt injury with severe chest injuries, including one cardiac perforation. Most were coagulopathic before initiation of ECMO/iLA support.

38), CE indication (P = 0 24), CE lesion

38), CE indication (P = 0.24), CE lesion Cell Cycle inhibitor location (P = 0.29), days between CE and SE (P = 0.30), and depth of insertion (P = 0.81). Type of CE findings (particularly AVMs) significantly affected SE reproducibility (P = 0.015). SE procedure time was inversely related to SE reproducibility (odds ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence interval = 0.88-0.99, P = 0.02).\n\nLimitations: Small sample size and potential for false-positive CE study.\n\nConclusions: SE seems to be moderately effective (57.1%) in terms of its ability to locate pathology within the small intestine. The type of small bowel pathology targeted by SE may affect its clinical utility.

AVMs observed on CE can be seen at the time of SE in the majority of cases (60%).”
“This study evaluated the antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel (CPG) in patients sustaining acute ischemic stroke who were already receiving chronic outpatient aspirin therapy (81-325 mg/day). Platelet function was measured using 3 different “point-of-care” platelet function analyzers: the Thrombelastograph hemostasis system, the Accumetrics VerifyNow system, and the Chronolog 570VS impedance aggregometer.

Platelet function was assessed before administration of a 300-mg CPG loading dose and again at 26 hours and 64 hours after this loading dose along with a 75-mg daily maintenance dose. All 3 instruments detected marked inhibition of platelet function at 26 hours and 64 hours after CPG administration. There were significant variations among the 3 instruments in monitoring antiplatelet responses to aspirin and CPG; however, these variations were eliminated LY411575 when the platelet

function results were corrected for baseline platelet variability. The percentage of patients who were poor responders to CPG after switching from aspirin depended on the measurement instrument used, but was higher at 26 hours after CPG administration than at 64 hours after CPG administration. Our findings indicate that poor response to antiplatelet agents in general, and to CPG in particular, is a function of the measuring instrument. The correction for baseline platelet variability results in similar levels of platelet inhibition measured by the 3 platelet function analyzers. Future studies are warranted to examine the association between ex vivo CPG-induced NVP-LDE225 mw platelet inhibition and clinical outcomes in patients with ischemic stroke.”
“Background:\n\nSince 2009 UK GPs have been incentivised to use depression severity scores to monitor patients’ response to treatment after 5-12 weeks of treatment.\n\nAim:\n\nTo examine the association between the severity scores obtained and follow-up questionnaires to monitor depression and subsequent changes made to the treatment of it.\n\nDesign and setting:\n\nA retrospective cohort study utilising routine primary care records was conducted between April 2009 and March 2011 in 13 general practices recruited from within Hampshire, Wiltshire, and Southampton City primary care trusts.

To develop better, faster, cheaper ways for converting the highly

To develop better, faster, cheaper ways for converting the highly Selleck BEZ235 abundant hydrocarbons to value-added chemicals, carbon-hydrogen ( C-H) activation

is becoming one of the most powerful synthetic tools. As time goes on, C-H activation will find its wider application in a variety of catalytic processes in the pharmaceutical industry, materials science and other industries.”
“We outline the synthesis of six novel derivatives that are based on a recently discovered HDAC inhibitor FR235222. Our work is the first report utilizing a novel binding element, guanidine, as metal coordinators in HDAC inhibitors. Further, we demonstrate that these compounds show cytotoxicity that parallels their ability to inhibit deacetylase activity, and that the most potent compounds maintain an L-Phe at position 1, and a D-Pro at position 4. Both inhibition of HDAC activity and cytotoxicity against the pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC3 are exhibited by these compounds, establishing that a guanidine unit can be utilized successfully to inhibit HDAC activity. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives To compare the proteomic profile of inter-proximal pocket tissues with inter-proximal healthy tissues in the same subject to reveal proteins associated with periodontal disease in sites where periodontopathogenic bacteria were not detectable. Methods Twenty-five healthy patients, with moderate-to-advanced

chronic periodontitis and presenting with at least one intra-bony defect next to a healthy inter-proximal site were enrolled. selleck chemicals llc The periodontal defects were treated with osseous resective surgery, and the flap design

included both the periodontal pockets and the neighbouring inter-proximal healthy sites. Pocket-associated and healthy tissues were harvested for proteomic analyses. Results Fifteen proteins were differently expressed between pathological and healthy tissues. In particular, annexin A2, actin cytoplasmic 1, carbonic anhydrase 1 & 2; Ig kappa chain C region (two spots) and flavinreductase were overexpressed, whereas 14-3-3 protein sigma and zeta/delta, heat-shock protein beta -1 (two spots), triosephosphateisomerase, peroxiredoxin-1, Ro-3306 inhibitor fatty acid-binding protein-epidermal, and galectin-7 were underexpressed in pathological tissue. Conclusions The unbalanced functional network of proteins involved could hinder adequate tissue response to pathogenic noxa. The study of periodontal pocket tissue proteomic profile would be crucial to better understand the pathogenesis of and the therapeutic strategies for periodontitis.”
“Suga H, Araki J, Aoi N, Kato H, Higashino T, Yoshimura K. Adipose tissue remodeling in lipedema: adipocyte death and concurrent regeneration.”
“Bioremediation of weathered drill wastes severely contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) (90,000-170,000 mg kg(-1)) and BTEX (51.

The IWT subjects trained at a target of 60 min of

The IWT subjects trained at a target of 60 min of AG-014699 molecular weight fast walking at bigger than 70% peak aerobic capacity for walking ((V) over dotO(2peak)) per wk for 12 wk, while those in the CNT maintained their previous sedentary life during the same period. We measured the energy expenditure of the daily physical activity, except during sleeping and bathing, every minute and every day during the intervention. We also measured the isometric knee extension (F-EXT) and flexion (F-FLX) forces, (V) over dotO(2peak), and anaerobic threshold during the graded cycling exercise ((V) over dotO(2AT)) before

and after the intervention. All subjects, except for one in IWT, completed the protocol. FFLX increased by 23% on the operated side (P = 0.003) and 14% on the non-operated

side of IWT (P = 0.006), while it only increased on the operated side of CNT (P = 0.03). The (V) over dotO(2peak) www.selleckchem.com/products/mcc950-sodium-salt.html and (V) over dotO(2AT) in IWT increased by 8% (P = 0.08) and 13% (P = 0.002), respectively, and these changes were significantly higher in the IWT than in CNT group (both, P smaller than 0.05). In conclusion, IWT might be an effective home-based training regimen for preventing the muscle atrophy from reduced daily physical activity in THA patients.”
“Alcohol is the most commonly abused drug worldwide, and chronic alcohol consumption is a major etiological factor in the development of multiple pathological sequelae, including alcoholic cardiomyopathy and hepatic cirrhosis. Here, we identify regulator of G protein signaling 6 (RGS6) as a critical regulator of both alcohol-seeking behaviors and the associated cardiac and hepatic morbidities through two mechanistically divergent signaling actions. RGS6(-/-) mice consume less EPZ5676 cell line alcohol when given free access and are less susceptible to alcohol-induced reward and withdrawal. Antagonism of GABA(B) receptors or dopamine D2 receptors partially reversed the reduction in alcohol

consumption in RGS6(-/-) animals. Strikingly, dopamine transporter inhibition completely restored alcohol seeking in mice lacking RGS6. RGS6 deficiency was associated with alterations in the expression of genes controlling dopamine (DA) homeostasis and a reduction in DA levels in the striatum. Taken together, these data implicate RGS6 as an essential regulator of DA bioavailability. RGS6 deficiency also provided dramatic protection against cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, hepatic steatosis, and gastrointestinal barrier dysfunction and endo-toxemia when mice were forced to consume alcohol. Although RGS proteins canonically function as G-protein regulators, RGS6-dependent, alcohol-mediated toxicity in the heart, liver, and gastrointestinal tract involves the ability of RGS6 to promote reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis, an action independent of its G-protein regulatory capacity.