Finally, we address the placebo response rate outside the laborat

Finally, we address the placebo response rate outside the laboratory and outside of trials in clinical routine. This question poses a serious challenge whether the drug response in trials can be taken as evidence of drug effects in clinical routine.”
“Place of thromboelastography as a guide for hemorrage therapeutic management Coagulopathy, which is of a multifactorial nature can complicate 3-Methyladenine price and worsen the prognosis of bleeding

after trauma, delivery and major surgery. The management of this coagulopathy is based on the administration of clotting factors and platelets. In this context, the use of point of care testing could reduce delays in obtaining test results and help guide treatment. Thromboelastography learn more (TEC (R), ROTEM (R)) evaluates clot firmness and may respond earlier and more accuratly than the tests performed on

plasma in the laboratory. Thromboelastography may thus guide the therapeutic management of these coagulopathies. Haemorrhagic events associated with coagulopathy have been monitored by thromboelastography in various settings. This tool is sensitive to the coagulopathy of severe haemorrhage, mainly to variations in fibrinogen concentrations. The wide use of transfusion algorithms incorporating thromboelastography still requires validation in which improving outcome is the objective. The first published studies are attractive but do not support widespread use of these algorithms.”
“Background:\n\nThe care that most people receive at the end of their lives is provided not by specialist palliative care professionals but by generalists such as GPs, district nurses and others who have not undertaken specialist training in palliative care. A key focus of recent UK policy is improving partnership working across the spectrum

of palliative care provision. However there is little evidence to click here suggest factors which support collaborative working between specialist and generalist palliative care providers\n\nAim:\n\nTo explore factors that support partnership working between specialist and generalist palliative care providers.\n\nDesign:\n\nSystematic review.\n\nMethod:\n\nA systematic review of studies relating to partnership working between specialist and generalist palliative care providers was undertaken. Six electronic databases were searched for papers published up until January 2011.\n\nResults:\n\nOf the 159 articles initially identified, 22 papers met the criteria for inclusion. Factors supporting good partnership working included: good communication between providers; clear definition of roles and responsibilities; opportunities for shared learning and education; appropriate and timely access to specialist palliative care services; and coordinated care.

The other cancer mouse model (Hep-2) was resistant to radiotherap

The other cancer mouse model (Hep-2) was resistant to radiotherapy.\n\nConclusions:The results indicate that cell structural changes after radiotherapy have a significant influence on ultrasound spectral parameters. This provides a foundation for future investigations regarding the use of ultrasound in cancer patients to individualize treatments noninvasively based on their responses to specific interventions.”
“It is currently thought that treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI) will involve a

combined pharmacological and biological approach; however, testing their efficacy in animal models of SCI is time-consuming and requires large animal cohorts. HCS assay For this reason we have modified our myelinating cultures as an in vitro model of SCI and studied its potential

as a prescreen for combined therapeutics. This culture comprises dissociated rat embryonic spinal cord cells plated onto a monolayer of astrocytes, which form myelinated axons interspaced with nodes of Ranvier. After cutting the culture, an initial cell-free area appears persistently devoid of neurites, accompanied over time by many features of SCI, including demyelination and reduced neurite density adjacent to the lesion, and infiltration of microglia and reactive astrocytes into the lesioned area. We tested a range of concentrations of the Rho inhibitor C3 transferase (C3) and ROCK SB273005 molecular weight inhibitor Y27632 that have been shown to promote SCI repair in vivo. C3 promoted neurite extension into the lesion and enhanced neurite density in surrounding areas but failed to induce

remyelination. In contrast, while Y27632 did not induce significant neurite outgrowth, myelination adjacent to the lesion was dramatically enhanced. The effects of the inhibitors were concentration-dependent. Combined treatment with C3 and Y27632 had additive affects with an enhancement of Selleck Entinostat neurite outgrowth and increased myelination adjacent to the lesion, demonstrating neither conflicting nor synergistic effects when coadministered. Overall, these results demonstrate that this culture serves as a useful tool to study combined strategies that promote CNS repair. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Objective To test the hypothesis that red blood cell (RBC) transfusions increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature infants, we investigated whether the risk of “transfusion-associated” NEC is higher in infants with lower hematocrits and advanced postnatal age.\n\nStudy design Retrospective comparison of NEC patients and control patients born at <34 weeks gestation.\n\nResults The frequency of RBC transfusions was similar in NEC patients (47/93, 51%) and control patients (52/91, 58%). Late-onset NEC (>4 weeks of age) was more frequently associated with a history of transfusion(s) than early-onset NEC (adjusted OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 1.5 to 31.2; P = .02).

Subjective memory complaints may be valid indicators of psychopat

Subjective memory complaints may be valid indicators of psychopathology and the need for clinical assessment.”
“Excessive mucus production has been linked to many of the pathologic features of respiratory diseases, including obstruction of the airways, decline in lung function, increased rates of mortality, and increased infections. The mucins, MUC5AC and MUC5B, contribute to the viscoelastic properties of mucus, and are found at elevated levels in the airways of individuals with chronic respiratory diseases. The T helper type 2 cell cytokine, IL-13, is known to regulate MUC5AC expression in goblet cells of the airways, small molecule library screening although much less is known about

the regulation of MUC5B expression. In a study to further understand the mediators of MUC5AC and MUC5B expression, neuregulin (NRG) 1 beta 1 was identified as novel regulator of goblet cell formation in primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). NRG1 beta 1 increased expression of MUCAC and MUC5B proteins in a time- and dose-dependent fashion in HBEC cultures. NRG1 beta 1-induced expression of MUSAC and AZD7762 MUC5B was shown to involve v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB) and ErbB3 receptors, but not ErbB4 receptors. Treatment of HBECs with

inhibitors of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal regulated kinasel/2, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase indicated that these kinases were involved in NRG1 beta 1-induced MUC5AC and MUC5B expression. Additionally, NRG1 beta 1 was shown to induce the phosphorylation of the ErbB2 receptor, AKT, and extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2. NRG1 beta 1 protein was found increased in the airways of antigen-challenged mice, together with increases in MUC5AC and MUC5B message. Together, these data indicate that NRG1 beta 1 is a novel mediator of MUC5AC and MUC5B

expression in HBECs, and may represent a novel therapeutic target for mucus hypersecretion in respiratory diseases.”
“It has been difficult to set an individualized therapeutic window of tacrolimus after organ transplantation, because of wide interindividual variation of responsiveness to immunosuppressive therapy. In this study, we examined the significance of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) in the peripheral blood cells by comparing the trough concentration this website of tacrolimus with the occurrence of acute cellular rejection (ACR) in retrospectively collected pediatric living-donor liver transplant patients, who were enrolled after obtaining written informed consent. No significant difference in the intraindividual variation in MDR1 mRNA expression in the peripheral blood cells was observed between postoperative days 3 and 7. The average trough concentration of tacrolimus during the 15-day postoperative period was significantly higher in the event-free patients than in those who experienced ACR (21 of 44 cases), and they had higher levels of blood MDR1 mRNA.

“Purpose: Accurate measurements of the RF power delivered

“Purpose: Accurate measurements of the RF power delivered during clinical MRI are essential for safety and regulatory compliance, avoiding inappropriate restrictions on clinical MRI sequences, and for testing the MRI safety of peripheral and interventional devices at known RF exposure levels. The goal is to make independent RF power measurements to test the accuracy of scanner-reported specific absorption rate (SAR) over the extraordinary range of operating conditions routinely encountered in MRI.\n\nMethods: A six channel,

high dynamic range, real-time power profiling buy CX-6258 system was designed and built for monitoring power delivery during MRI up to 440 MHz. The system was calibrated and used in two 3 T scanners to measure power applied to human subjects during MRI scans. The results were compared with the scanner-reported SAR.\n\nResults: The new power measurement system has highly linear performance over a 90 dB dynamic range and a wide range of MRI duty cycles. It has about 0.1 dB insertion loss that does not interfere with scanner operation. The measurements of whole-body SAR in volunteers showed that scanner-reported SAR was significantly overestimated by up to about 2.2 fold.\n\nConclusions: The new power monitor system can accurately and independently measure RF power deposition over the wide range of conditions routinely encountered

during MRI. Scanner-reported SAR values are not appropriate for setting exposure limits during device or pulse sequence testing. (C) 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. []“
“Carotenoids click here are essential pigments of the photosynthetic apparatus and an indispensable component of the human diet. In addition to being potent antioxidants, they also provide the vitamin A precursor beta-carotene. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits, carotenoids accumulate in specialized plastids, the chromoplasts. How the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is regulated and what limits total carotenoid accumulation in fruit chromoplasts is not well understood. Here, we have introduced the lycopene

beta-cyclase genes from the eubacterium Erwinia herbicola and the higher plant daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus) into the tomato plastid 4SC-202 cost genome. While expression of the bacterial enzyme did not strongly alter carotenoid composition, expression of the plant enzyme efficiently converted lycopene, the major storage carotenoid of the tomato fruit, into provitamin A (beta-carotene). In green leaves of the transplastomic tomato plants, more lycopene was channeled into the beta-branch of carotenoid biosynthesis, resulting in increased accumulation of xanthophyll cycle pigments and correspondingly reduced accumulation of the alpha-branch xanthophyll lutein. In fruits, most of the lycopene was converted into beta-carotene with provitamin A levels reaching 1 mg per g dry weight.

An A-to-T nucleotide substitution was observed in non-control reg

An A-to-T nucleotide substitution was observed in non-control region of all seven APV sequences in comparison with BFDV1 strain. Two C-to-T nucleotide substitutions were also detected in non-coding regions of one isolate. A phylogenetic analysis of the whole genome sequences indicated that the sequences from the same species of bird were closely related. APV has been reported to have distinct tropism for cell cultures

of various avian species. The present study indicated that a single amino acid substitution at position 221 in VP2 was essential for propagating in chicken embryonic fibroblast culture and this substitution was promoted by propagation on budgerigar embryonic fibroblast culture. For two isolates, three

serial amino selleck products acids appeared to be deleted in VP4. However, this deletion had little effect on virus propagation. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A review is presented of the present status of the theory, the developed technology and the current applications of dielectrophoresis (DEP). Over the past 10 years around 2000 publications have addressed these three aspects, and current trends suggest that the theory and technology have matured sufficiently for most effort to now be directed towards applying DEP to unmet needs in such areas as biosensors, cell therapeutics, drug discovery, medical diagnostics, microfluidics, nanoassembly, and particle filtration. The dipole approximation to describe the DEP force acting on a particle subjected to a nonuniform electric field has evolved to Ilomastat inhibitor include multipole contributions, the perturbing effects arising from interactions with other cells and boundary surfaces, and the influence of

electrical double-layer polarizations that must be considered Ispinesib manufacturer for nanoparticles. Theoretical modelling of the electric field gradients generated by different electrode designs has also reached an advanced state. Advances in the technology include the development of sophisticated electrode designs, along with the introduction of new materials (e. g., silicone polymers, dry film resist) and methods for fabricating the electrodes and microfluidics of DEP devices (photo and electron beam lithography, laser ablation, thin film techniques, CMOS technology). Around three-quarters of the 300 or so scientific publications now being published each year on DEP are directed towards practical applications, and this is matched with an increasing number of patent applications. A summary of the US patents granted since January 2005 is given, along with an outline of the small number of perceived industrial applications (e.g., mineral separation, micropolishing, manipulation and dispensing of fluid droplets, manipulation and assembly of micro components).

[E244K; E245K] in APOE as reported previously In addition, he ha

[E244K; E245K] in APOE as reported previously. In addition, he had APOA5 haplotypes associated with hypertriglyceridemia. Laboratory examinations

excluded deficiency of apolipoproteins, lipoprotein lipase, and GPI-HBP1 in this patient. Conclusions: This is, to our knowledge, the first report of severe hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis in a patient with apo E7. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A new gas transport model for fractal-like tight porous media is proposed by simultaneously considering the microstructural selleck screening library complexity of real porous media, the compressibility of gas, and the gas slippage effect. This model clarifies the gas transport mechanisms in porous media: the total gas flow volume is governed by the weighted addition of viscous flow and slippage flow, and the distribution weighting factor depends on the capillary diameter and the mean free path of the gas. Based on the proposed model, a new permeability model was derived for gas transport in fractal-like tight porous media. The new permeability model does not have any empirical constants, and every parameter in the model has clear physical meaning. The predictions from the model were then

compared with experimental data to show that the model is valid. Furthermore, the parameters influencing gas permeability were analyzed. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“Our previous studies have demonstrated that the natural chaperone complexes of full-length tumor protein Ags (e. g., gp100)

and large stress proteins (e. g., hsp110 and grp170) with exceptional Ag-holding capabilities augment potent tumor protective immunity. In this study, we assess the peptide-interacting property MEK inhibitor CUDC-907 cell line of these large chaperones and, for the first time, compare the immunogenicity of the recombinant chaperone vaccines targeting two forms of Ags (protein versus peptide). Both hsp110 and grp170 readily formed complexes with antigenic peptides under physiologic conditions, and the peptide association could be further stimulated by heat shock. The large chaperones displayed similar but distinct peptide-binding features compared with hsp70 and grp94/gp96. Immunization with hsp110- or grp170-tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2(175-192)) peptide complexes effectively primed CD8(+) T cells reactive with TRP2-derived, MHC class I-restricted epitope. However, the tumor protective effect elicited by the TRP2(175-192) peptide vaccine was much weaker than that achieved by full-length TRP2 protein Ag chaperoned by grp170. Furthermore, immunization with combined chaperone vaccines directed against two melanoma protein Ags (i.e., gp100 and TRP2) significantly improved overall antitumor efficacy when compared with either of the single Ag vaccine. Lastly, treatment of tumor-bearing mice with these dual Ag-targeted chaperone complexes resulted in an immune activation involving epitope spreading, which was associated with a strong growth inhibition of the established tumors.

The predominant SW aspect of the enigmatic dragonblood tree under

The predominant SW aspect of the enigmatic dragonblood tree underlines the importance of fog. Long-term weather observations by Socotri put these short-term meteorological observations into a longer perspective. Socotri informants also described the Galardin solubility dmso drought years when livestock populations crashed, after which windows of opportunities for the regeneration of dragonblood and other grazing-sensitive trees may have occurred. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In the current health care climate, economic and cultural conditions have created an

optimal opportunity to envision a new direction for nursing as a profession. Nurses find themselves at the formative stages of charting this new direction. The articulation of a professional practice model provides a framework for setting this new direction and thus the achievement of exemplary clinical outcomes. In this article, the authors describe the evolution of the professional

VX-770 practice model at the Massachusetts General Hospital and how the model continues to be evaluated and modified over time by the nurses within the system.”
“Epilepsy remains a major medical problem for which there is no effective treatment. Oxidative damage plays an important role in epilepsy pathogenesis and may represent a target for treatment of epilepsy. Recent studies have suggested that nuclear factor selleck compound erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) binds to antioxidant response element (ARE) to induce antioxidant and phase II detoxification enzymes under conditions of oxidative stress, which reduces oxidative damage and accumulation of toxic metabolites. This study evaluated the role of Nrf2-ARE signal pathway in protecting the brain from seizure-mediated damage. Wistar rats and Nrf2-deficient or control mice were chronic kindled in the amygdala. Sulforaphane (SF) was used to activate Nrf2-ARE signal pathway. The progression of kindling, the cognitive impairment and oxidative stress parameters were assessed to determine the extent of seizure-mediated

brain damage. Our results indicate that activation Nrf2-ARE signal pathway with SF in hippocampus suppressed the progression of amygdala kindling, and also ameliorated the cognitive impairment and oxidative stress induced by epileptic seizure. These observations suggest that Nrf2-ARE signal pathway may represent a strategic target for epilepsy therapies. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Surrogate decision makers (SDMs) face difficult decisions at end of life (EOL) for decisionally incapacitated intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Purpose: To identify and describe the underlying psychological processes of surrogate decision making for adults at EOL in the ICU. Methods: Qualitative case study design using a cognitive task analysis interviewing approach.

Fragmentation was

Fragmentation was this website not associated with changes in the levels of respiratory chain complexes, or with obvious or latent mitochondrial dysfunction, but was recovered by nigericin, which catalyzes the electroneutral exchange of K+ against H+. Down-regulation of LETM1 caused ‘necrosis-like’ death, without activation of caspases and not inhibited by overexpression of Bcl-2. Primary fibroblasts from a WHS patient displayed reduced LETM1 mRNA and protein, but mitochondrial morphology was surprisingly unaffected, raising the question of whether and how WHS patients counteract the consequences of monoallelic deletion of LETM1. LETM1 highlights the relationship between mitochondrial ion homeostasis,

integrity selleck kinase inhibitor of the mitochondrial network and cell viability.”
“The polymeric mucin component of the intestinal mucus barrier changes during nematode infection to provide not only physical protection but also to directly affect pathogenic

nematodes and aid expulsion. Despite this, the direct interaction of the nematodes with the mucins and the mucus barrier has not previously been addressed. We used the well-established Trichuris muris nematode model to investigate the effect on mucins of the complex mixture of immunogenic proteins secreted by the nematode called excretory/secretory products (ESPs). Different regimes of T. muris infection were used to simulate chronic (low dose) or acute (high dose) infection. Mucus/mucins Luminespib inhibitor isolated from mice and from the human intestinal cell line, LS174T, were treated with ESPs. We demonstrate that serine protease(s) secreted by the nematode have the ability to change the properties of the mucus barrier, making it more porous by degrading the mucin component of the mucus gel. Specifically, the serine protease(s) acted on the N-terminal polymerising domain of the major intestinal mucin Muc2, resulting in depolymerisation of Muc2 polymers. Importantly, the respiratory/gastric mucin Muc5ac, which is induced in the intestine and is critical for worm expulsion, was protected from the depolymerising effect exerted by ESPs. Furthermore, serine protease inhibitors (Serpins) which may protect the mucins, in particular

Muc2, from depolymerisation, were highly expressed in mice resistant to chronic infection. Thus, we demonstrate that nematodes secrete serine protease(s) to degrade mucins within the mucus barrier, which may modify the niche of the parasite to prevent clearance from the host or facilitate efficient mating and egg laying from the posterior end of the parasite that is in intimate contact with the mucus barrier. However, during a T(H)2-mediated worm expulsion response, serpins, Muc5ac and increased levels of Muc2 protect the barrier from degradation by the nematode secreted protease(s).”
“Background and Objectives Pancreastatin is a derived peptide of chromogranin A (CgA). Pancreastatin has the potential to be a diagnostic and predictive tumor marker in detecting NETs.

Design The antiviral activity of curcumin and its derivatives was

Design The antiviral activity of curcumin and its derivatives was evaluated using HCV pseudo-particles (HCVpp) and cell-culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) in hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocytes. The mechanism of action was dissected using R18-labelled virions and a membrane fluidity assay.

Results Curcumin treatment had no effect on HCV RNA replication or viral assembly/release. However, co-incubation of HCV with curcumin potently inhibited entry of all major HCV genotypes. Similar antiviral activities were also exerted by other curcumin derivatives but not by tetrahydrocurcumin, ALK inhibitor clinical trial suggesting the importance of alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone groups for the antiviral activity. Expression levels of known HCV receptors were unaltered, Sotrastaurin nmr while pretreating the virus with the compound reduced viral infectivity without viral lysis.

Membrane fluidity experiments indicated that curcumin affected the fluidity of the HCV envelope resulting in impairment of viral binding and fusion. Curcumin has also been found to inhibit cell-to-cell transmission and to be effective in combination with other antiviral agents. Conclusions Turmeric curcumin inhibits HCV entry independently of the genotype and in primary human hepatocytes by affecting membrane fluidity thereby impairing virus binding and fusion.”
“Within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), synaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) mediate phasic inhibition of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and influence behavioral responses to cocaine. Wedemonstrate that both dopamine D1- and D2- receptor- BMS-345541 purchase expressing MSNs (D- MSNs) additionally harbor extrasynaptic GABA(A)Rs incorporating alpha 4, beta, and delta subunits that mediate tonic inhibition, thereby influencing neuronal excitability. Boththe selective delta-GABA(A) RagonistTHIPandDS2, aselective positive allostericmodulator, greatlyincreasedthe toniccurrentof allMSNsfrom wild- type (WT), but not from delta(-/-) or alpha 4(-/-) mice. Coupling dopamine and tonic inhibition, the acute activation of D1 receptors (by a selective agonist or indirectly by amphetamine) greatly enhanced tonic inhibition in D1- MSNs but not D2- MSNs. In contrast, prolonged D2 receptor activationmodestlyreducedthe

tonicconductanceof D2-MSNs. Behaviorally, WTandconstitutive alpha 4(-/)-micedidnotdiffer in their expression of cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP). Importantly, however, mice with the alpha 4 deletion specific to D1-expressing neurons (alpha 4(D1-/-)) showed increased CPP. Furthermore, THIP administered systemically or directly into theNAcofWT, but not alpha 4(-/)-or alpha 4D1(-/)-mice, blocked cocaine enhancement of CPP. In comparison, alpha 4(D2-/)-mice exhibited normal CPP, but no cocaine enhancement. In conclusion, dopamine modulation of GABAergic tonic inhibition of D1- and D2-MSNs provides an intrinsic mechanism to differentially affect their excitability in response to psychostimulants and thereby influence their ability to potentiate conditioned reward.

These observations support the conclusion that, during the nuclea

These observations support the conclusion that, during the nuclear cataract formation, alterations in protein packing are extensive and can result in pronounced density fluctuations. Aging causes the MLB cores to become increasingly different in their protein packing from the adjacent cytoplasm. These results support the hypothesis that the MLBs increase their scattering with age and nuclear cataract formation. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“What is known and Objective: Invasive fungal infections are a major threat

to renal transplant recipients. Micafungin and voriconazole are two useful antifungal agents for treating such infections. Our objective is to evaluate the comparative efficacy and safety of micafungin and voriconazole in the initial treatment of such infections.\n\nMethods: ASP2215 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor In this prospective, multicentre, open-labelled, randomized, controlled trial, renal transplant recipients with invasive fungal infections were assigned to receive either micafungin or voriconazole. The enrolled

subjects received a kidney transplant between March 2008 and March 2010 at one of the two transplant centres in Henan Province, China. The efficacy and adverse effects of the two treatments were compared.\n\nResults and Discussion: The clinical trial enrolled 65 patients, of whom 31 were treated with micafungin, and 34 with voriconazole. The rates of microbiological evidence of infection in the micafungin and voriconazole groups were 64.5% and 70.5%, respectively, whereas the rates of Candida as the major cultured fungus were 80.0% and 75.0%, respectively. Complicated bacterial infection rates in the Silmitasertib two treatment groups were 38.7% and 32.4%, respectively, whereas complicated CMV viral infection occurred at a rate of 19.2% and 23.5%, respectively. Fungal infection within one to 3 months after transplant was 83.6% (26/31) and 85.3% (29/34) in the micafungin and voriconazole groups, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups Natural Product Library in terms of efficacy, survival beyond 10 days

and discontinuation of treatment because of lack of efficacy (P > 0.05). Mortality rates in the micafungin and voriconazole groups were 9.7% (3/31) and 12.1% (4/33), respectively. Rates of adverse effects in the two groups were 41.9% and 51.6% (P > 0.05), respectively.\n\nWhat is new and Conclusions: This is the first comparison of micafungin and voriconazole in renal transplant patients. Our study shows that the effectiveness of micafungin was similar to that of voriconazole in such patients.”
“Aims: To compare the effects of lifestyle modification programs that prescribe low-glycemic load (GL) vs. low-fat diets in a randomized trial.\n\nMethods: Seventy-nine obese adults with type 2 diabetes received low-fat or low-GL dietary instruction, delivered in 40-week lifestyle modification programs with identical goals for calorie intake and physical activity.