This was followed by addition of 100 μl of growth medium

This was followed by addition of 100 μl of growth medium

containing F-dAdo at a final concentration of 1.5 μM for CT26 or CT26-HER2/neu cells or 6 μM for MCF-7HER2 cells [5]. After 72 hours incubation at 37°C, inhibition of cell growth was determined by an MTS assay according to manufacturer’s recommendation. When the fusion proteins were directly added, cells were seeded as described above. Then 40 μl of fusion protein at different dilutions and 10 μl of F-dAdo Pevonedistat in vivo stock (1.5 μM for CT26 or CT26HER2/neu cells and 6 μM for MCF-7HER2 cells) were added to cells and incubated for 72 hours at which time the degree of cell proliferation was determined by MTS assay. To examine the bystander effect of the fusion protein, mixtures of CT26 and CT26HER2/neu cells were seeded overnight at 5 × 103 cells per well at different ratios, and the assay was completed as described above with hDM-αH-C6.5 MH3B1 and F-dAdo at final concentrations of 0.1 μM and 1.5 μM, respectively. Cytotoxicity of F-Ade to cells with different growth rates MCF7-HER2 cells were seeded overnight at a density of 5 × 103 in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum. The following day, cells were washed carefully, the medium replaced with serum at different levels to influence growth rate, and cells grown for an additional 72 hours in the presence or absence of 6 μM F-Ade.

The level of cell viability or the number of cells were PD0332991 mw determined by Methocarbamol MTS assay, or by visually counting them. Stability of hDM-αH-C6.5 MH3B1 at 37°C in serum To evaluate the stability of hDM-αH-C6.5 MH3B1, hDM-αH-C6.5 MH3B1 at a concentration of 0.001 μM was incubated in the presence of fetal bovine serum at 37°C for up to 23 hours. Samples were removed at different times and stored at 4°C. After the last sample was removed, each was added to overnight seeded MCF-7HER2

cells (5 × 103/well) in the presence of 6 μM F-dAdo, and the activity of hDM-αH-C6.5 MH3B1 was determined by its ability to convert F-dAdo to F-Ade and inhibit cell proliferation as assessed by MTS assay 72 hours after addition of fusion protein and prodrug to cells. SPR analysis of interaction of ECDHER2 with hDM-αH-C6.5 MH3B1 inding of hDM-αH-C6.5 MH3B1 to ECDHER2 was evaluated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on a BIAcore T-100. To determine the affinity of the monomeric interaction of hDM-αH-C6.5 MH3B1 with ECDHER2, 533 resonance units (RU) of trimeric hDM-αH-C6.5 MH3B1 were immobilized on the surface of a CM5 sensor chip following the standard amine coupling procedure according to the manufacturer’s suggestion. The remaining active groups were blocked by ethanolamine. A control surface was generated by following the same procedure, but without addition of protein. ECDHER2 at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 nM in PBS was flowed over the surface at 30 μl/min for 750 second. This was followed by a 45 minute dissociation phase at the same flow rate.

The patient information is described in Table 1 Cu/Zn


The patient information is described in Table 1. Cu/Zn

SOD was included in this experiment as a positive control. Abbreviations: Cu/Zn SOD, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase; see more M, metastatic cancer; N, normal; P, primary cancer; Prx I, peroxiredoxin I; Prx II, peroxiredoxin II; SDS-PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel; Trx1, thioredoxin 1. These Western data shown in Figures 7, 8, 9 indicate that Prx I protein was overexpressed in 7 of 8 cases (87.5%) of breast cancer but in none of the 6 cases of normal breast tissue. Thioredoxin1 protein was overexpressed in 6 of 8 cases (75.0%) of breast cancer. Discussion To our knowledge, there has been only one previous report suggesting overexpression of Prx I protein in human breast

cancer. Overexpression of Prx I was detected in 21 of 24 patients (87.5%) with breast cancer, but no significant relationship was found between overexpression of Prx I and progress in breast cancer [13]. Anlotinib research buy Their finding of overexpression of Prx I protein in breast cancer tissue by Western immunoblotting agrees with our observations (7 of 8 cases, 87.5%; 0 of 6 normal, 0%). One study has examined the association of overexpression of Prx I protein with clinicopathological parameters in oral cancer [15]. Low Prx I expression in oral cancer was associated with larger tumor mass and poorly differentiated cancer cells. In our study, all samples of breast cancer stage IV, which belonged to metastatic breast cancers, were found to overexpress Prx I at the highest level. Moreover, in our study of 204 samples, Prx I expression was significantly associated with increasing cancer progress. We examined all six members of the Prx family in eight human cancers (breast, colon, kidney, liver, lung, ovary,

prostate, and thyroid) and found that Prx I was preferentially induced only in breast cancer, not in other cancer tissues. The isoforms Prx GNAT2 I and II were highly expressed in breast cancer. The expression level of Prx II was slightly higher than that of Prx I in breast cancer, but the induction fold of Prx I was significantly higher than that of Prx II. This apparent inconsistency seems to be caused by the lower level of Prx I mRNA in normal breast tissue compared with that of Prx II. At present, few studies have been conducted on all six Prx members in various human cancers [13, 16]. In contrast to our observations, other results have shown high protein expression of Prxs III, IV, and V in breast cancer, but not Prxs I, II, V, and VI. Immunoreactive protein and mRNA levels do not necessarily correspond with each other, as previously seen in a study of Prx V in rat tissues [30]. This suggests that both translational and posttranslational mechanisms probably have effects on Prx protein expression in human tissues. For example, destabilizing Prx proteins by overoxidation or phosphorylation leads to degradation, which results in reduced protein levels in cancer tissue [31, 32].

Stromata when dry (1 3–)1 5–3 3(–5 1) × (0 9–)1 2–2 4(–3 2) mm, (

Stromata when dry (1.3–)1.5–3.3(–5.1) × (0.9–)1.2–2.4(–3.2) mm, (0.5–)0.6–1.4(–2.0) mm thick (n = 20), solitary, less commonly gregarious

or aggregated in small numbers, erumpent from bark, centrally attached, typically on a white, columnar or pulvinate, compact mycelial Selleckchem Bucladesine base, with upper fertile part free and often incurved at the margin, pulvinate or semiglobose; outline roundish, oblong or irregularly lobed. Surface smooth, slightly tubercular or rugose, glabrous or slightly downy or whitish floccose. Ostiolar dots (30–)47–106(–165) μm (n = 90) diam, numerous, densely disposed, well-defined when mature, often confluent, convex to papillate, orange to nearly red. Stroma colour bright orange (bright yellow surface, orange dots), 5–6AB5–8. White inside. Spore deposits white. Dry stromata instantly transparent and discoloured to pale yellowish after addition of 3% KOH on a slide. Rehydrated buy Duvelisib stromata ca 30% larger than dry, semiglobose, light yellowish, discoloured, white with pale orange-ochre ostiolar dots; no change noted after addition of 3% KOH. Stroma anatomy: Ostioles (67–)75–98(–116) μm long, plane or projecting to 15(–30) μm,

(28–)30–45(–60) μm wide at the apex (n = 31), typically only periphysate, less commonly with some clavate marginal cells to 6 μm wide at the apex; often ostiolum and stroma cortex projecting to 50–90 μm. Perithecia (160–)200–250(–290) × (90–)130–200(–215) μm (n = 31), flask-shaped, ellipsoidal or subglobose, mostly crowded, 7–8 per mm stroma length. Peridium (11–)13–19(–21) μm (n = 31) thick at the base, (5–)10–16(–18) μm (n = 31) at the sides, pale yellowish. Cortical layer (16–)20–30(–35) μm (n = 30) thick, a dense, subhyaline to pale yellowish t. angularis of isodiametric or oblong, thick-walled cells (2.5–)4–8(–11) × (2.5–)3–5(–7) μm in face view and in vertical section (n = 62). Cortex of young stromata covered by a reticulum of thick-walled OSBPL9 hyaline hyphae, when mature remaining as hairs (4–)8–24(–35) × (2.5–)3.0–4.5(–5.5) μm (n = 30), cylindrical, straight or curved, simple or branched, hyaline, thin-walled. Subcortical tissue a t.

intricata of thin-walled hyaline hyphae (2.0–)2.5–4.5(–7.0) μm (n = 30) wide. Subperithecial tissue a t. epidermoidea–intricata of thick-walled hyaline cells (4–)7–30(–58) × (4–)7–14(–22) μm (n = 30) and hyphae (3.5–)6–13(–19) μm (n = 30) wide. Non-attached base a loose or dense t. intricata of hyaline or yellowish, thick-walled hyphae (2.0–)2.5–4.5(–6.0) μm (n = 30) wide. Asci (85–)100–130(–150) × (5.0–)5.5–6.2(–7.0) μm; stipe (5–)13–28(–41) μm long (n = 60); croziers present. Ascospores hyaline, verruculose; cells dimorphic; distal cell (4.0–)4.5–5.7(–6.7) × (3.7–)4.0–4.5(–5.0) μm, l/w (1.0–)1.1–1.4(–1.7) (n = 110), subglobose or wedge-shaped; proximal cell (4.5–)5.2–6.5(–7.8) × (3.0–)3.3–4.0(–4.5) μm, l/w (1.2–)1.4–1.8(–2.2) (n = 110), oblong or subglobose; size increasing with maturation.

This assumption received support that is described in detail in [

This assumption received support that is described in detail in [26]. As it was reported [26, 27], the average conformation of grafted PAA chains is controlled by the grafting ratio: for D70-g-PAA20, it is close to that of a worm-like chain; for D70-g-PAA5, it differs from that of a worm-like chain, although it is definitely not random, namely, the PAA-grafted chains are highly extended near their tethering point and recover a random conformation far from this point. The number of grafted chains and their average conformation are closely related to the compactness of the branched macromolecules which can be assessed through the

LY2874455 research buy ratio R z 2 /M w [27] (see Table 1). When the ratio R z 2 /M w is lower, the compactness is higher. Table 1 Molecular parameters of the D70- g -PAA copolymers and the linear PAA Sample M w (×10−6 g mol−1) R z (nm) R z 2/M w (×103) Dextran content (weight%) D70-g-PАА5 2.15 85 3.36 3.26 D70-g-PАА20 1.43 64 2.87 4.89 PAA 1.40 68 3.23 – The compactness becomes higher as the grafting ratio of the D70-g-PAA samples

increases. However, for D70-g-PAA5 copolymers, this characteristic is close to that of linear PAA macromolecules (Table 1). Star-like D-g-PAA copolymers and linear PAA were transformed into polyelectrolytes. During hydrolysis, some amide groups of the PAA chains were converted into carboxylate ones: Alkaline hydrolysis of D70-g-PAA were not attended by irrelevant processes (breaking or cross-linking of macromolecules) P505-15 cost as it was confirmed by SEC analysis of source

and saponified samples. In comparison with linear polyacrylamide, all branched polymers reveal higher values of conversion to anionic form due to compactness of their molecular structure in comparison with linear polymer. It leads to a higher local concentration of functional groups for non-linear polymer molecule (Table 2). Table 2 Conversion degree of polymers (hydrolysis time 30 min) Sample А (%) D70-g-PAA5 35 D70-g-PAA20 37 PAA 28 The viscometry data reveals no polyelectolyte effect but a drastic increase in the Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) intrinsic viscosity for hydrolyzed branched samples with respect to non-ionic ones (Figure 1). It is known that the reduced viscosity of polyelectrolyte solution increases in very dilute regime due to electrostatic repulsions between charged monomers. As it was mentioned above, grafted chains in D70-g-PAA copolymers, even in non-ionic form, have a worm-like or mushroom average conformation that is far from that of a random coil. Hydrolyzed D70-g-PAA copolymer in a salt form acquired limited extended conformation due to appearance of charged functional group. Therefore, its conformation cannot be changed when the concentration is decreased. Figure 1 Concentration dependence of reduced viscosity for hydrolyzed D70- g -PAA5 and D70- g -PAA20 samples.

15 A 10-fold dilution of the inoculums was performed Ten microl

15. A 10-fold dilution of the inoculums was performed. Ten microlitres of all dilutions of bacteria in PBS were spotted onto the LB agar with and without adding sub-lethal

concentrations of menadione (400 μM), H2O2 (250 μM) and tBOOH (200 μM) [52]. Colony counts were performed after incubation at 37°C for 24 hrs. The number of colonies on plates containing oxidants was compared with that on control plates (LB agar without oxidant) and presented as % bacterial survival. % Survival = CFU (with oxidant) × 100/ CFU (without oxidant). Statistical analysis All assays were conducted in triplicate, and unpaired t-test of independent experiments was performed by statistical analysis using GraphPad Prism 6 program (STATCON). Results were considered significant at p-value ≤ 0.05. Acknowledgements This work was supported by a Research Grant from the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Fiscal year 2011. NC is supported by a Wellcome Trust Career Development Award in Public Health and Tropical

Medicine, UK (Grant: 087769/Z/08/Z). We thank Herbert P. Schweizer for providing pEXKm5 vector. We thank Prof. Srisin Khusmith for her insightful advice, and Mr. Glad Rotaru & Mr. Paul Adams, of the Office of Research Services, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, for proof-reading the manuscript. Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Construction and verification of eFT-508 in vivo B. pseudomallei SDO mutant. A) A 566 bp DNA fragment containing 298 bp-upstream and 288 bp-downstream of the SDO gene was replaced into the B. pseudomallei K96243 genome using the pEXKm5-based allele replacement system [19]. B) PCR of B. pseudomallei wild type, SDO mutant and SDO complement strain were performed with the BPSS2242-F1 and BPSS2242-R2 primer pair (lane 1: 100–3000 bp marker ladder; lane 2: negative control; lane 3: K96243; lane 4: SDO mutant; and lane 5: SDO complement strain). Adenylyl cyclase C) PCR analysis of pEXKm5 plasmid backbone within the B. pseudomallei genome using

oriT specific primers (lane 1: 100–3000 bp marker ladder; lane 2: negative control; lane 3: SDO mutant before sucrose selection; lane 4: SDO complement strain before sucrose selection; lane 5: SDO mutant after sucrose selection; and lane 6: SDO complement strain after sucrose selection). (TIFF 742 KB) References 1. White NJ: Melioidosis. Lancet 2003, 361:1715–1722.PubMedCrossRef 2. Currie BJ, Jacups SP: Intensity of rainfall and severity of melioidosis, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis 2003, 9:1538–1542.PubMedCrossRef 3. Leelarasamee A, Trakulsomboon S, Kusum M, Dejsirilert S: Isolation rates of Burkholderia pseudomallei among the four regions in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1997, 28:107–113.PubMed 4. Vuddhakul V, Tharavichitkul P, Na-Ngam N, Jitsurong S, Kunthawa B, Noimay P, Noimay P, Binla A, Thamlikitkul V: Epidemiology of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1999, 60:458–461.PubMed 5.

1 %)

Fig  1 PCM use

1 %).

Fig. 1 PCM use GDC-0973 cell line by country. Percentages represent proportion of groups for which data were available. Other includes clonidine (clonidine use: UK, 3.4 %; the Netherlands, 1.6 %; all other countries, 0 %), SNRIs, TCAs, MAO inhibitors, antiepileptic drugs, and a general “other” category. Categories were not mutually exclusive, thus the same patient could be counted in multiple categories. Total percentages of PCM use by country were the following: Italy 32.7 %, France 19.0 %, the Netherlands 15.6 %, Spain 14.2 %, UK 11.0 %, and Germany 4.1 %. PCM psychotropic concomitant medication, SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, SNRI serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, TCI tricyclic antidepressant, MAO monoamine oxidase At baseline, PCM users had significantly higher rates of anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, aggression, OCD, insomnia, ODD, and learning disability (Fig. 2). PCM users were also significantly older (59 % aged 13–17 years vs. 41 % aged 6–12 years, P = 0.005) and had a higher number of pre-existing co-morbidities (mean 3.7 vs. 2.4, P < 0.0001) compared with the ADHD medication-only group (Table 1). In addition, the rate of ADHD symptoms at diagnosis differed between groups: PCM users selleck products had higher rates of anger, irritability, and inappropriate behavior, and also

exhibited higher overall mean impairment level (mean 7.2 vs. 6.3, P < 0.0001) than the group with ADHD medication only. PCM users also had a higher physician-reported rate of concurrent behavioral therapy (60 vs. 38 %, P = 0.0004) and lower levels of patient engagement (6.0 vs. 6.6, P = 0.010). Race; education; in-school status; employment; and ADHD among siblings, parents, or other family members were not significantly different between groups. Other factors that were similar between groups included evidence of this website impairment

at work, school, or social settings; number of years since diagnosis; number of treatment lines per follow-up year; and level of family involvement in the patient’s ADHD condition and treatment. Fig. 2 Co-morbidities by medication group. PCM psychotropic concomitant medication, ADHD attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ODD oppositional defiant disorder Table 1 Baseline characteristics by current PCM use Baseline characteristics PCM use n = 80 ADHD medication only n = 489 P value Age group [n (%)]     0.0047  6–9 years 13 (16.3) 82 (16.8)    10–12 years 20 (25.0) 209 (42.7)    13–17 years 47 (58.8) 198 (40.5)   Gender [n (%)]     0.7751  Male 61 (76.3) 379 (77.5)    Female 19 (23.8) 110 (22.5)   Country [n (%)]     <0.0001  France 19 (23.8) 81 (16.6)    Italy 17 (21.3) 35 (7.2)    Spain 16 (20.0) 97 (19.8)    UK 13 (16.3) 106 (21.7)    The Netherlands 10 (12.5) 54 (11.0)    Germany 5 (6.3) 116 (23.7)   Predominant symptoms/behaviors at diagnosis [n (%)]  Inattention 64 (80.0) 394 (80.6) 0.8798  Hyperactivity 58 (72.5) 339 (69.3) 0.6020  Impulsivity 59 (73.

Whatever the explanation, our results remain consistent with a ro

Whatever the explanation, our results remain consistent with a role for MdtM in alkaline pH homeostasis in E. coli. In our growth experiments, the requirement for sodium or potassium ions for MdtM-mediated alkalitolerance suggests a mechanistic role for Na+ and K+ ions in MdtM activity and this

was confirmed by fluorescence-based activity assays performed at alkaline pH values (Figure 6). These assays showed that MdtM catalysed a Na+(K+)/H+ antiport that, in mTOR inhibitor drugs vivo, probably enables the exchange of internal monovalent metal cations for extracellular protons to maintain a stable internal pH, acid relative to outside, during exposure to alkaline environments. This conclusion was supported by our experiments that used BCECF fluorometry to measure cytoplasmic pH under different external alkaline pH conditions (Figure 10). The ability of MdtM to exchange either

Na+ or K+ cations for protons endows E. coli with the flexibility to respond effectively to changes in chemical composition of the environment at alkaline pH. When sodium is available, AZD5153 the Na+/H+ antiport activity of MdtM can permit growth. Under sodium-poor conditions, or when other Na+/H+ antiporters are disrupted, regulation of cytoplasmic pH by K+/H+ antiport activity of MdtM can contribute to alkaline pH homeostasis. Although the contribution of K+ concentration to pH homeostasis in E. coli is still unclear [6, 36], the K+/H+ antiport activity of MdtM may offer a mechanism for regulating cytoplasmic pH by utilising the outwardly-directed K+ gradient to drive proton capture during growth at (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate alkaline pH [5, 37]. Provided the rate of MdtM is slower than that of the systems that generate the PMF, and of the uptake systems that bring K+ into the cell, MdtM will not act as an uncoupler to dissipate the PMF. Furthermore, in alkaline environments,

the same K+/H+ antiport activity of MdtM has the potential to protect E. coli from the toxic effects of high intracellular concentrations of K+ and, therefore, to function also in K+ homeostasis. Just such a function was identified previously for the E. coli ChaA antiporter [12]. Additionally, and in contrast to MdfA, MdtM is capable of transporting lithium ions at alkaline pH (Figure 8B) and it may function physiologically in alkaline pH homeostasis when Li+ is present. This highlights further the subtle differences in function that exist between the closely-related MdfA and MdtM transporters, and that lessons learned from one cannot simply be imposed upon the other. As control of internal pH is, by definition, control of cytoplasmic proton concentration, the requirements of bacterial pH homeostasis dictate the relative magnitudes of the transmembrane proton gradient (ΔpH) and transmembrane electrical potential (Δψ), the two individual components that constitute the PMF.

J Food Prot 2001, 64:388–391 PubMed 28 Madigan M, Martinko J: Br

J Food Prot 2001, 64:388–391.PubMed 28. Madigan M, Martinko J: Brock biology of microorganisms. 11th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall; 2005. 29. Ogston A: On abscesses: classics in infectious diseases. Rev Infect Dis 1984,6(1):122–128.CrossRef 30. Kotiranta A, Lounatmaa K, Haapasalo M: Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Bacillus cereus infections. Microbes Infect 2000,2(2):189–198.PubMedCrossRef

31. Collins MD, Hoyles L, Foster G, Falsen E: Corynebacterium caspium sp. Nov., from a Caspian seal (Phoca caspica). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2004,54(Pt 3):925–928.PubMedCrossRef 32. Mages IS, Reinhard F, Bernard KA, Funke G: Identities of Arthrobacter spp. and Arthrobacter -like bacteria encountered in human clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol 2008,46(9):2980–2986.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 33. Smith KJ, Neafie R, Yeager J, Thiazovivin Skelton HG: Micrococcus folliculitis in HIV-1disease. Br J Dermatol 1999,141(3):558–561.PubMedCrossRef 34. Selladurai B, Sivakumaran S, Subramanian A, Mohamad AR: Intracranial suppuration caused by Micrococcus luteus. Br J Neurosurg 1993,7(2):205–207.PubMedCrossRef 35. Angellilo IF, Viggiani NM, Rizzo L, Bianco A: Food handlers and food-borne diseases: knowledge, attitudes, and reported behaviours in Italy. J Food Prot 2000,63(3):381–385. 36. Kreger-Van Rij NJW: The yeasts: a taxonomic study. 3rd edition.

Amsterdam: The Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers ARRY-438162 concentration BV; 1984. 37. Rippon JW: Medical mycology. 3rd edition. W.B. Saunders Co: Philadelphia, USA; 1988. 38. Adams SP: Dermacase: Erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica. Can Fam Physician 2002, 48:271–277.PubMedCentralPubMed 39. Kirkpatrick CH: Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Pediatr Infect Dis 2001,20(2):197–206.CrossRef

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Naphthalene see more and phenanthrene were added at a final concentration of 5 mmol l-1, either dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide (ACS grade, Anachemia)

and added to cultures used for RNA extraction or added as a suspension of crystals to cultures used for fatty acid extraction. Phenanthrene efflux assay Efflux of [9-14C]phenanthrene (96.5% radiochemical purity; Amersham) was determined using a rapid centrifugation method [17] conducted at room temperature (~22°C). The final concentration of radiolabeled plus unlabeled phenanthrene in the assay medium was 6.4 μM, which corresponds to 90% of its aqueous solubility limit at that temperature and ensures that insoluble phenanthrene does not confound measurement of cell-associated radiolabel. P. fluorescens cLP6a and cLP6a-1 cells were harvested by centrifugation, washed once with potassium phosphate buffer [pH 7] and re-suspended in the same buffer at room temperature at an OD600 of 1.0. Cell suspensions learn more were used immediately in the rapid assay to prevent long-term FA composition changes, and phenanthrene efflux was measured over a period of only 25 min. At time zero radiolabeled phenanthrene was added to the cell suspension and thereafter samples were withdrawn at timed intervals, collecting the cells by using a microfuge. The concentration of phenanthrene in the cell pellet (μmol/g) was calculated from the amount of 14C in the pellet fraction, the initial phenanthrene concentration and the

cell dry weight as previously described by Bugg et al. [17]. Sodium azide (Fisher Scientific) was added 9 min into the assay to a final concentration of 120 mM as an inhibitor of active transport [17]. All efflux assays were performed using independent triplicate cultures. Steady state concentrations pre- and post-azide addition were calculated and statistically SSR128129E evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) in Excel. Antibiotic

sensitivity assays The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the lowest concentration of antibiotic that inhibits growth, was measured as turbidity (OD600) using a Powerwave XS spectrophotometer (BioTek). The MICs of tetracycline, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, erythromycin and chloramphenicol were determined using the microtiter broth dilution method [20] for P. fluorescens cLP6a and cLP6a-1 grown at 10°C, 28°C or 35°C. RNA extraction P. fluorescens cLP6a cells were grown in TSB to logarithmic, stationary or death phase at 28°C; to stationary phase at 10°C, 28°C or 35°C; or to stationary phase in the presence of antibiotics (chloramphenicol or tetracycline at ¼ MIC) or PAHs (naphthalene or phenanthrene at 5 mmol l-1). At point of harvest, 10 ml of culture was stopped by adding 1.25 ml of ice-cold ethanol/phenol solution (5% water-saturated phenol, in ethanol). Total RNA was immediately extracted from the harvested cultures using MasterPure™ RNA Purification Kit (Epicentre Biotechnologies) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

J Appl Microbiol 2007, 102:1060–1070 PubMed 12 Uttamchandani M,

J Appl Microbiol 2007, 102:1060–1070.PubMed 12. Uttamchandani M, Neo JL, Ong BNZ, Moochhala S: Applications of microarrays in pathogen detection and biodefence. Trends Biotechnol 2008, 27:53–61.PubMedCrossRef 13. Leinberger DM, Schumacher U, Autenrieth IB, Bachmann TT: Development of a DNA microarray Combretastatin A4 molecular weight for detection and identification of fungal pathogens involved in invasive mycoses. J Clinical Microbiol 2005, 43:4943–4953.CrossRef 14. DeSantis TZ, Stone CE, Murray SR, Moberg JP, Andersen GL: Rapid quantification and taxonomic classification of environmental DNA from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic origins using a microarray.

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