6 ml/min Separation of polyphenols was achieved using the follow

6 ml/min. Separation of polyphenols was achieved using the following linear gradient system: 5–15% B in 6 min; 15–25% B in 3 min; 25–60% B in 3 min; 60–80% B in 0.6 min; 80–100% B in 0.8 min. The polyphenols were detected at a wavelength of 254 nm on a diode array detector. The polyphenol standards, consisting of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin and

kaempferol, were prepared in 50% methanol containing 20 mM DETC sodium salt and 5 μl volumes were injected into the UHPLC system and ran under the same conditions as described above. Akt signaling pathway All analyses were done in triplicate. Results were expressed as means ± standard deviations. The data were statistically analysed using the SPSS statistical software, version 15 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois, USA). An independent t-test was used for comparison of means between groups. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s Honestly

Significant Difference test were used to compare means among groups. A Pearson correlation test was utilised to study the relationship between the antioxidant components and the antioxidant activities. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. In the present study, B. racemosa from two different states, Kelantan on the east coast and Kedah on the UMI-77 west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were used for comparison purposes. In an attempt to find the optimal solvent for extraction of antioxidants from B. racemosa, four solvents of varying polarities were selected, namely water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane ( Awah et al., 2010 and Khoo et al., 2008). The extraction yield and antioxidant components in the leaves and stems extracted with the four solvents are shown in Table 1. Among the different solvent extracts of the leaves collected from Kelantan and Kedah, the water extracts had the highest yield, followed, in descending

order, by the ethanol > ethyl acetate > hexane extracts. The aqueous extracts of plants are commonly shown to give higher yields than other solvent extracts ( Peschel et al., 2006). Extraction was performed at room temperature to prevent potential deterioration of antioxidant compounds as a result of heating or boiling ( Nurul Mariam et al., 2008). Polyphenol and ascorbic acid contents were highest in the water extracts, implying that most polyphenols in B. racemosa are Cell press polar. When the values were converted to freeze-dried weight, the polyphenol contents in the water extracts in this study (16.3–20.3 mg GAE/g freeze-dried tissue) were comparable to those of a previous study which reported that the methanol leaf extract of B. racemosa had 16.2 mg GAE/g of polyphenols ( Nurul Mariam et al., 2008). The polyphenol contents of the leaf water extracts of B. racemosa were comparable to, if not higher than several Chinese medicinal herbs (0.57–281 mg GAE/g of freeze-dried tissue) ( Liu et al., 2008) and Algerian medicinal plants (3.31–32.3 mg GAE/g of air-dried tissue) ( Djeridane et al., 2006).

In the dark, 0 2 mL of the sample was added to 3 8 mL of 0 5 mM

In the dark, 0.2 mL of the sample was added to 3.8 mL of 0.5 mM

DPPH. The consumption of DPPH was monitored by spectrophotometer at 515 nm for different reaction times, until ISRIB in vitro its stabilization. The DPPH concentration in the medium was calculated using a calibration curve (0–0.16 mg/mL) and determined by linear regression (Eq. (1)). equation(1) A515nm=6.6953×[DPPH](r=0.999)where: [DPPH] = concentration of DPPH expressed in mg/mL. From the calibration curve equation, the percentage of the remaining DPPH for each time at every concentration tested was determined according to Eq. (2): equation(2) %DPPHREM=([DPPH]t/[DPPH]control)×100%DPPHREM=([DPPH]t/[DPPH]control)×100 The DPPHREM percentage was plotted against the reaction time using an exponential model of the first order, through the software Microcal Origin 6.0, to estimate the percentage of DPPHREM at steady state for each concentration tested. And then the percentage of DPPHREM at steady state was plotted against the solutions concentration to obtain the amount of antioxidant needed to decrease the initial concentration of DPPH by 50% (EC50). The

time needed to reach the EC50 (TEC50) was obtained graphically as proposed by Sánchez-Moreno et al. (1998). The anti-radical efficiency (AE) was calculated according to Eq. (3). equation(3) AE=1/(EC50∗TEC50)AE=1/(EC50∗TEC50) The inhibitory effect of phenolic compounds produced by the fermentation was evaluated on the enzymes responsible HSP cancer for browning in plant tissues,

peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. The enzyme extract was obtained from 20 g of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Monalisa variety) with 100 ml of buffer solution pH 7 (0.1 M phosphate-citrate buffer). After 2 min of grinding in a blender, the mixture was filtered (by cotton) and centrifuged (15 min, 4 °C, 3200g). The crude enzyme extract was used as the enzyme source, with the soluble protein content estimated in mg of albumin ( Lowry, Rosenbrough, Farr, & Randall, 1951). The peroxidase enzyme activity was determined using 0.2 ml of enzyme extract, 1 ml of 30 mM cAMP H2O2, 2 mL of a 5 mM guaiacol solution, with the final volume of the tube being completed to 4 ml with buffer pH 7, and the reaction absorbance detected at 470 nm after 10 min of reaction at 30 °C. The polyphenol oxidase activity was determined using 1 ml of enzyme extract, 2 mL of a solution of 10 mM catechol, 1 mL of buffer pH 7 with the absorbance reaction detected at 425 nm after 10 min of reaction at 30 °C. The inhibitory effect of phenolic compounds extracted from rice bran and fermented rice bran (96 h) in the activity of these enzymes was evaluated using different concentrations of the inhibitor. The final pH of the reaction was adjusted at 7 by the addition of a solution of 0.1 M NaOH. The inhibition mechanism of phenolic compounds on the peroxidase enzyme was also evaluated by the km and Vmax parameters.

Although pirarucu farming is still incipient, the species has sho

Although pirarucu farming is still incipient, the species has shown great potential because of its peculiar characteristics, such as: excellent quality of meat, free of thorns, large consumer acceptance,

rusticity, air-breathing capacity and high growth rates, which can range from 7–10 kg in the first year of farming establishment ( Imbiriba, 2001 and Pereira-Filho et al., 2003). Since pirarucu is a large fish, its processing generates a considerable amount of waste, including viscera. In the light of this fact, the objective of this study was to establish a purification protocol, and to characterise and evaluate the possibility of using the digestive tract (pyloric caeca) of A. gigas as a potential source of trypsin. Specific substrate, inhibitors, check details Sephadex® G75 and DMSO were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA). Benzamidine–Sepharose was purchased from GE Healthcare (Buckinghamshire, UK). All salts and acid solutions were purchased from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany) and all SDS–PAGE reagents and molecular mass marker were from Bio-Rad Laboratories (Ontario, Canada). The Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife-PE, Brazil) kindly donated cultivated juvenile specimens Small molecule library of A. gigas for this study. The experimental cultivation of A. gigas was conducted in excavated tanks (250 m2)

located in the Estação de Aquicultura Continental Johei Koike – Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife-PE, Brazil. The animals were fed a commercial diet provided by Purina S/A, Brazil, containing 40% crude protein. Mean length of A. gigas specimens was 76.8 ± 12.2 cm

and mean weight was 4118 ± 1.8 g. After 40 days, three specimens were sacrificed in an ice bath Diflunisal for biometric measurements and tissue removal, according to standard methodology described by Bezerra et al. (2001). The pyloric caeca were dissected, carefully cleaned with deionized water, and kept at 4 °C during transportation to the laboratory (∼30 min). After this, the tissues (16 g) were homogenised in 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.0 (200 mg of tissue/ml buffer), using a tissue homogenizer (4 °C) (IKA RW 20D S32, China). The homogenate was then centrifuged (Sorvall RC-6 Superspeed Centrifuge, North Carolina, USA) at 10,000g for 20 min at 4 °C. The supernatant (crude extract) was stored at −25 °C and used for further purification steps. Trypsin was purified, following a four-step procedure: heat treatment, ammonium sulphate precipitation, molecular size exclusion chromatography (Sephadex® G-75) and affinity chromatography (benzamidine-agarose). Crude extract (60 ml) was incubated at 45 °C for 30 min and centrifuged at 10,000g for 10 min at 4 °C. The supernatant was collected and fractionated into three fractions with ammonium sulphate (F1, 0–30%, F2, 30–90% of saturation and SF, final supernatant) for 2 h at 4 °C. Afterwards, the precipitate containing trypsin activity was collected by centrifugation and dialysed against 0.1 M Tris–HCl, pH 8.0.

Jochen Mueller is funded by an ARC Future Fellowship (FF 12010054

Jochen Mueller is funded by an ARC Future Fellowship (FF 120100546). Entox is a joint venture of the University of Queensland and Queensland Health. The National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology is co-funded by Queensland Health. “
“Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)

are chemicals that have Transmembrane Transporters modulator been used for industrial applications and in consumer products since the 1950s (Buck et al., 2011). Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), and related chemicals such as N-methyl and N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido ethanols (Me- and EtFOSEs) and -sulfonamides (Me- and EtFOSAs) have been manufactured by electrochemical fluorination (ECF) as a mixture of linear (70%) and branched (30%) isomers (Martin et al., 2010). Production of PFOS and related chemicals was phased out in North America and Europe in 2002 by its main producer. Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) have been manufactured by both ECF (producing both linear and branched isomers) and telomerization processes (producing only linear isomers), and major industrial buy MAPK Inhibitor Library companies have committed to reduce production and eliminate emissions of PFCAs with a chain length ≥ C8, and other chemicals that can degrade to these long-chain PFCAs by

2015 (US EPA, 2006). Human biomonitoring studies have shown that the general population in several countries has been exposed to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) such as PFOS and PFCAs, as well as to numerous precursors for Niclosamide several decades and that this exposure has changed over time (Glynn et al., 2012, Lee and Mabury, 2011, Loi et al., 2013, Yeung et al., 2013a and Yeung et al., 2013b). Ingestion of dust, food, drinking water and inhalation of air have all been identified as human exposure pathways (De Silva

et al., 2012; Filipovic and Berger, in press;Gebbink et al., submitted for publication and Shoeib et al., 2011). PFOS and PFOA exposure of the general population has previously been estimated (Trudel et al., 2008), and in a later study the role of precursor exposure was estimated in human exposure to PFOS and PFOA (Vestergren et al., 2008). Human exposure to PFOS and PFCAs via one or multiple exposure pathways is considered as direct exposure, while exposure to their precursors and subsequent biotransformation of these precursors to PFOS and PFCAs is considered as indirect exposure to PFOS and PFCAs. Precursors that can act as an indirect exposure source to PFOS (i.e. they are biotransformed in humans) include FOSEs, FOSAs, and intermediates such as perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acids (FOSAAs) (Tomy et al., 2004, Xie et al., 2009 and Xu et al., 2004).

The latter finding deserves consideration Additive effects betwe

The latter finding deserves consideration. Additive effects between a S–R compatibility factor and variables that affect perceptual processing have consistently been observed (for reviews, see Sanders, 1980 and Sanders, 1990). S–R compatibility effects have been shown to combine additively with target duration (Simon & Berbaum, 1990), target eccentricity (Hommel, 1993, Experiment 1), and target quality (e.g., Acosta and Simon, 1976, Everett et al., 1985, Frowein and Sanders, 1978, Sanders, 1977, Shwartz et al., 1977, Simon,

1982, Simon and Pouraghabagher, 1978, Stoffels et al., 1985 and van Duren and Sanders, 1988; but see Hommel, 1993, Experiments 2–5; Stanovich & Pachella, 1977). Target quality has been manipulated along various dimensions selleckchem such as signal-background luminance contrast, sound bursts intensity levels, or visual noise. Hence, our results and those of Stafford et al. (2011) cannot be due to a peculiarity of color saturation.9 Simulations of the DSTP performed in the present

work show that the model is able to generate different outcomes (additivity/super-additivity between color saturation and compatibility, linear/curvilinear relationship between the mean and SD of RT distributions) under seemingly plausible parametric variations. Moreover, they highlight a tradeoff between the first and second phase of response selection. The model appears Tenofovir ic50 so flexible that it may be difficult to falsify. However, the DSTP fails to explain the Simon data, showing that it is indeed falsifiable.

The results of our experiments suggest a common model framework for different conflict tasks. This finding appears problematic for the SSP because the model was specifically designed to account for spatial attention dynamics in the Eriksen task, although White, Ratcliff, et all al. (2011) hypothesized that the spotlight component may also center on a more abstract attentional space. On the contrary, Hübner et al. (2010) formalized the DSTP in a sufficiently abstract way to “potentially serve as a framework for interpreting distributional effects in a large range of conflict paradigms” (p. 760). However, neither the DSTP nor the SSP explain processing in the Simon task, because the models are unable to predict an inversion of RT moments between compatibility conditions (i.e., the incompatible condition is associated with the largest mean and the smallest SD of RT) characteristic of the task (e.g., Burle et al., 2002, Pratte et al., 2010 and Schwarz and Miller, 2012). This statistical peculiarity suggests an important parametric variation between Eriksen and Simon tasks. An inversion of RT moments may be generated by a rate of evidence accumulation that becomes progressively higher for the incompatible compared to the compatible condition. The reason for such a counter-intuitive scheme is unclear. We explored alternative versions of the SSP and the DSTP with a lack of attentional selection in compatible trials.

On one hand, just as thinning intensity is a balance between adeq

On one hand, just as thinning intensity is a balance between adequate light for desirable species versus too much light that promotes undesirable competing vegetation, gaps must be sufficiently large to provide the proper light environment (Fig. 12c). This is especially true for shade-intolerant, light-demanding species (Grubb, 1977 and Malcolm et al., 2001). On the other hand, even without the concern of competing vegetation, large gaps may expose seedlings to harsh conditions of high temperatures, inadequate soil moisture, high atmospheric evaporative demand, or lack of shelter from frost

(Lundmark and ABT-263 in vivo Hällgren, 1987 and Dey et al., 2012). For many forest types, simplification of structure relative to historic reference conditions is an unanticipated (or sometimes intended) outcome of management that may have spanned decades (Palik et al., 2002). This is manifest in simplified age structure, reduced spatial heterogeneity of structural characteristics, and a depletion of decadent and dead trees. Globally, interest in managing forests for greater structural heterogeneity in ways that emulate the structural outcomes of natural disturbance and stand development processes is increasing (Attiwill, 1994 and Larson and Churchill, 2012). Managing forest stands to restore structural heterogeneity is, in fact, an important goal for ecological management (Franklin et al., 2007). Some

of the primary ways structural heterogeneity is accomplished is through approaches that increase age class diversity in Selleck INK1197 single-cohort stands, through innovative uses of thinning to increase spatial heterogeneity of structure, and through deliberate creation of decadence and retention of deadwood. Stands with age diversity generally are more species rich

than stands with less diverse structure (Thompson, 2012). Similarly, at the landscape level a diversity of stand structures promotes the greatest diversity of species (O’Hara, 1998 and Oliver et al., 2012). In particular, early seral stands are underrepresented in many managed forested landscapes (Swanson et al., 2010 and Greenberg et al., 2011). Transforming simple to complex structures (age-simplified to age-complex) requires time and multiple IMP dehydrogenase entries into stands (Nyland, 2003 and Pommerening, 2006). Even so, many forest owners and managers are increasingly interested in managing for more complex age structures (Nyland, 2003), motivated by societal concerns about even-aged management using clearfelling; approaches that leave continuous cover at some level are preferred and lend themselves to development of uneven-aged stands (Pommerening and Murphy, 2004). While the social goals that drive such transformations may be valid, doing so should only be construed as structural restoration if the forest type in question was actually characterized historically by more complex structure.

After careful review, the Editorial Board believes sufficient evi

After careful review, the Editorial Board believes sufficient evidence exists to support this accusation. The article duplicates significant paragraphs from other published papers. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission

process. “
“The consensus view of the peopling of the Americas, incorporating archaeological, linguistic and genetic evidence, proposes colonization by a small founder population from Northeast Asia via Beringia 15–20 Kya (thousand years ago), followed by one or two additional migrations also via Alaska, contributing only to the gene pools of North Americans, and little subsequent

migration into the Americas VRT752271 manufacturer south of the Arctic Circle before the voyages from Europe initiated by Columbus in 1492 [1]. In the most detailed genetic analysis thus far, for example, Reich and colleagues [2] identified three sources of Native American ancestry: a ‘First PF-01367338 clinical trial American’ stream contributing to all Native populations, a second stream contributing only to Eskimo-Aleut-speaking Arctic populations, and a third stream contributing only to a Na-Dene-speaking North American population. Nevertheless, there is strong evidence for additional long-distance contacts between the Americas and other continents between these initial migrations and 1492. Norse explorers reached North America around 1000 CE and established a short-lived colony, documented

in the Vinland Sagas and supported by archaeological excavations [3]. The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was domesticated in South America (probably Peru), but combined genetic and historical analyses demonstrate that it was transported from South America to Polynesia before 1000–1100 CE [4]. Some inhabitants of Easter Island (Rapa Nui) carry HLA alleles characteristic of South America, most readily explained by gene flow after the colonization of the island around 1200 CE but before European contact in 1722 [5]. In Brazil, two nineteenth-century Botocudo skulls carrying the mtDNA Polynesian motif have been reported, and a Pre-Columbian date for Buspirone HCl entry of this motif into the Americas discussed, although a more recent date was considered more likely [6]. Thus South America was in two-way contact with other continental regions in prehistoric times, but there is currently no unequivocal evidence for outside gene flow into South America between the initial colonization by the ‘First American’ stream and European contact. The Y chromosome has a number of advantages for studies of human migrations. Haplotypes over most of its length are male-specific and evolve along stable lineages only by the accumulation of mutations, and the small male effective population size results in high levels of genetic drift of these haplotypes [7].

Bone marrow

Bone marrow learn more cells were extracted from male C57BL/6 (20–25 g, n = 10) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic

mice (20–22 g, n = 4) and administered on the day of collection. Briefly, under anaesthesia with ketamine (25 mg/kg) and xylazine (2 mg/kg) iv, bone marrow cells were aspirated from the femur and tibia by flushing the bone marrow cavity with Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY, USA). After a homogeneous cell suspension was achieved, cells were centrifuged (400 × g for 10 min), resuspended in DMEM and added to Ficoll-Hypaque (Histopaque 1083, Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO, USA). The isolated cells were counted in a Neubauer chamber with Trypan Blue for evaluation of viability. For the administration of saline or BMDMC, mice were anaesthetized with sevoflurane, the jugular vein of each mouse was dissected, and cells were slowly injected. A small aliquot of the mononuclear cells was used for immunophenotipic

characterization of the injected cell population. Cell characterization was performed by flow cytometry using antibodies CD45 (leukocyte), CD34 (hematopoietic precursors), CD3, CD8, and CD4 (T lymphocyte), CD14 (monocytes and macrophages), CD11b, CD29 and CD45− (non-hematopoietic precursors), all from BD Biosciences, USA. A total of 106 Cilengitide purchase female C57BL/6 mice (20–25 g) were used. Lung mechanics and histology as well as molecular biology were analyzed in 35 female C57BL/6 mice. The remaining 71 females were used to analyse the survival rate (n = 56) and the number of GFP+ cells in lung tissue (n = 15). All females were randomly assigned to two groups, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or Sham. In CLP, polymicrobial sepsis was induced as previously described ( Chao et al., 2010). Briefly, animals were anaesthetized with sevoflurane and a midline laparotomy (2 cm incision) was performed. The cecum

was carefully isolated to prevent damage to blood vessels. A 3.0 cotton ligature was placed selleckchem below the ileocecal valve to prevent bowel obstruction. Finally, the cecum was punctured twice with an 18-gauge needle and the animals recovered from anaesthesia ( Chao et al., 2010). In the Sham group, the abdominal cavity was opened and the cecum was isolated without ligation and puncture. The postoperative period was similar in both cases, with animals receiving subcutaneous injections of 1 ml of warm (37 °C) normal saline with tramadol hydrochloride (20 μg/g body weight). At 1 h, the Sham and CLP groups were further randomized into subgroups receiving saline (0.05 ml, SAL) or BMDMC (2 × 106 cells/0.05 ml of saline) intravenously (iv) ( Fig. 1). In order to determine the survival rate, Sham-SAL, Sham-BMDMC, CLP-SAL and CLP-BMDMC (n = 14/group) animals were used. All mice had free access to water and food and were monitored during 7 days by the investigators.

, 2006); thus, we infer that high magnitude, short


, 2006); thus, we infer that high magnitude, short

duration atmospheric river storms are similarly likely to govern flood hydrology in the ungaged Robinson Creek basin. Average annual rainfall recorded at the Boonville HMS gage (data from Western Regional Climate Center) near the mouth of Robinson Creek in Boonville, CA, over a 58 year period between water year 1937 and 1998 shows variability, with an average rainfall of 1016 mm/yr (Fig. 2). Annual rainfall totals measured at Yorkville, approximately 20 km east of Boonville, since 1898 provide a 115-year proxy record for estimating timing of storms, and further demonstrate variability characteristic of the region. Proxy data from other watersheds in northern California suggest that the period prior to the instrumental Wnt inhibitor record included extreme storms, such as occurred in 1861–1862 throughout California—and would have influenced the early Euro-American settlers in Anderson Valley. Storms with equal or greater magnitude occurred in AD 1600 and between 1750 and 1770, with a recurrence selleckchem interval over the past 800 years of ∼100–120 years (Ingram and Malamud-Roam, 2013). Still larger storms in California are thought to have recurrence intervals on the order of 200 years (Dettinger and Ingram,

2013). Other work suggests that moderate floods in northern California capable of geomorphic change recurred during ∼25% of years over the past 155 years (Florsheim and Dettinger, 2007). Pazopanib datasheet Together, these records suggest that extreme floods, as well as more moderate storms and droughts are characteristic of natural climate variability over multiple centuries including the historical period. Moreover, recent work suggests that since 1850, California’s climate

has been relatively stable and benign compared to variations typical of the past 2000 years or more (Malamud-Roam et al., 2006; 2007). Thus, even a century long rainfall record such as exists at Yorkville must be considered within the context of longer-term climate variation. The pre-incision Robinson Creek channel-floodplain environment supported riparian trees at an elevation such that frequent inundation was likely. Storms that generate enough runoff to initiate overbank flow in alluvial channel-floodplain systems were fundamental in creating this environment. Channel-floodplain hydrologic connectivity is still functioning in downstream portions of the Navarro River (e.g. overbank flow occurred during water years 1956, 1965, 1973, 1983, 1986, 1996, 1997, 1986, 1983, 1995, 1998; Florsheim, 2004). However, in Robinson Creek in Boonville, the 1986 and later floods remained within the channel, and although local residents recall high water during earlier floods during water years 1956, 1965, and 1983—their oral histories do not recount overbank flow (Navarro River Resource Center, 2006).

7; profiles a–b and i–j) They are equipped with dams at 20 km fr

7; profiles a–b and i–j). They are equipped with dams at 20 km from the outlet for Nitta

River, and at 16 and 12 km from the outlet for the Ota river. Only the finest – and most contaminated – material is exported from selleck kinase inhibitor their reservoirs, as suggested by the very high 134+137Cs activities measured in sediment collected just downstream of the dams (Fig. 7; profiles a–b and i–j). Those reservoirs stored very large quantities of contaminated sediment, as illustrated by the contamination profile documented in sediment accumulated behind Yokokawa dam (Fig. 8). Identification of a 10-cm sediment layer strongly enriched in 134+137Cs (308,000 Bq kg−1) and overlaid by a more recent and less contaminated layer (120,000 Bq kg−1) shows that Fukushima accident produced a distinct geological record that will be useful for

sediment dating and estimation of stocks of contaminated material in this region of Japan during the next years and decades. The succession of typhoons and snowmelt events during the 20 months that Palbociclib cell line followed FDNPP accident led to the rapid and massive dispersion of contaminated sediment along coastal rivers draining the catchments located in the main radioactive pollution plume. In this unique post-accidental context, the absence of continuous river monitoring has necessitated the combination of indirect approaches (mapping and tracing based on radioisotopic ratios, connectivity assessment) to provide this first overall picture of early sediment dispersion in Fukushima coastal catchments. These results obtained on riverbed sediment should be compared to the measurements this website conducted on suspended sediment that are being collected since December 2012. The combination of those measurements with discharge and suspended sediment concentration data will also allow calculating exports of contaminated sediment to the Pacific Ocean. Our

results showing the rapid dispersion of contaminated sediment from inland mountain ranges along the coastal river network should also be compared to the ones obtained with the conventional fingerprinting technique based on the geochemical signatures of contrasted lithologies. Fukushima coastal catchments investigated by this study are indeed constituted of contrasted sources (volcanic, plutonic and metamorphic sources in upper parts vs. sedimentary sources in the coastal plains). This unique combination of surveys and techniques will provide very important insights into the dispersion of particle-borne contamination in mountainous catchments that are particularly crucial in this post-accidental context, but that will also be applicable in other catchments of the world where other particle-borne contaminants are problematic.