In this study we report the analysis of ripe papaya transcriptome by using a cross-species (XSpecies) microarray technique based on the phylogenetic proximity between papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana.\n\nResults: Selleckchem Rapamycin Papaya transcriptome analyses resulted
in the identification of 414 ripening-related genes with some having their expression validated by qPCR. The transcription profile was compared with that from ripening tomato and grape. There were many similarities between papaya and tomato especially with respect to the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism, regulation of transcription, biotic and abiotic stress and cell wall metabolism. XSpecies microarray data indicated that transcription factors (TFs) of the MADS-box, NAC and AP2/ERF
gene families were involved in the control of papaya ripening and revealed that cell wall-related gene expression in papaya had similarities to the expression profiles seen in Arabidopsis during hypocotyl development.\n\nConclusion: The cross-species array experiment identified a ripening-related set of genes in papaya allowing the comparison of transcription control between papaya and other fruit bearing taxa during the ripening process.”
“The flexibility of flapping-wing strongly affects the aerodynamic performance of Flapping-wing Micro Air Vehicle (FMAV), and the deformations NF-��B inhibitor in span-wise and chord-wise directions are coupled together in flight. In this study,
Selleck Linsitinib the flexible deformation is formulated in span-wise and chord-wise separately in order to analyze its effects on aerodynamic behavior. The preconditioned Navier-Stokes equations based on chimera grid are used in the computational fluid dynamics method to study the aerodynamic effects caused by flexible deformation, and the simulation results are compared with experimental test to illustrate the capability of above method. Based on our results, it is clearly showed that the span-wise flexible deformation should be limited in a small range to achieve higher aerodynamic performance and the chord-wise deformation could enhance the aerodynamic performance. The results also suggest that FMAV designers should design the flapping-wing with high stiffness leading edge to limit the span-wise deformation, and more flexible chord ribs to keep chord-wise deformation in suitable range.”
“Background: We hypothesize that implantation of left ventricular assist device through off-pump technique is feasible and has a comparable result to implantation on cardiopulmonary bypass and could improve one-year survival.\n\nMethods: This retrospective, observational, single-center study was conducted on 29 consecutive patients at our institution who underwent off-pump left ventricular assist device implantation by a single surgeon.\n\nResults: Twenty-seven procedures were performed successfully using the off-pump technique.