It is also consistent with emerging evidence of disruptions of cy

It is also consistent with emerging evidence of disruptions of cyclic AMP-mediated intracellular signaling mechanisms, and may be a marker of these disruptions. It unambiguously demonstrates that neurophysiological disturbances in schizophrenia are not limited to cortical and subcortical structures, but rather include even the most peripheral sensory neurons.”
“Stress and anxiety are mainly regulated by amygdala and hypothalamic circuitries involving several neurotransmitter systems and

providing physiological responses to peripheral organs via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and other pathways. The role of endogenous opioid peptides in this process is largely unknown. Here we show for the first time that anxiolytic parameters of explorative behavior in mice lacking prodynorphin were increased 2-4-fold in the open field, the elevated plus maze and the light-dark test. Consistent with this, treatment of wild-type mice with selective kappa-opioid receptor antagonists GNTI or norbinaltorphimine showed the

same effects. Furthermore, treatment of prodynorphin knockout animals with U-50488H, a selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist, fully reversed their anxiolytic phenotype. These behavioral data are supported by an approximal 30% reduction in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus Sonidegib in vitro and central amygdala and an accompanying ARS-1620 concentration 30-40% decrease in corticosterone serum levels in prodynorphin

knockout mice. Although stress-induced increases in corticosterone levels were attenuated in prodynorphin knockout mice, they were associated with minor increases in depression-like behavior in the tail suspension and forced swim tests. Taken together, our data suggest a pronounced impact of endogenous prodynorphin-derived peptides on anxiety, but not stress coping ability and that these effects are mediated via kappa-opioid receptors. The delay in the behavioral response to kappa-opioid receptor agonists and antagonist treatment suggests an indirect control level for the action of dynorphin, probably by modulating the expression of CRH or neuropeptide Y, and subsequently influencing behavior.”
“Commonly used experimental paradigms of environmental enrichment combine increased social interactions and sensory inputs and renewal of the objects present in the environment. However, the specific contribution of novelty to the effects of enrichment is unclear. Here, we show that repeated daily exposure to single novel odorants and not to an enriched but stable olfactory environment improves short-term olfactory memory and neurogenesis in the mouse olfactory bulb. In addition, these positive effects are mediated by noradrenalin as they are blocked by a noradrenergic receptor antagonist. These data suggest that novelty recognition and noradrenergic mechanisms are crucial in mediating neural plasticity induced by olfactory enrichment.

To determine the role of APOBEC3G/F proteins in the control of vi

To determine the role of APOBEC3G/F proteins in the control of viremia in these patients, we used a novel assay to measure the frequency

of hypermutated proviral genomes. In most elite suppressors, the frequency was not significantly different than that observed in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Thus, enhanced APOBEC3 activity alone cannot explain the ability of elite suppressors to control viremia.”
“We previously showed that the cysteines flanking the internal fusion peptide of ��-Nicotinamide the avian sarcoma/leukosis virus subtype A (ASLV-A) Env (EnvA) are important for infectivity and cell-cell fusion. Here we define the stage of fusion at which the cysteines are required. The flanking cysteines are dispensable for receptor-triggered membrane association

but SHP099 research buy are required for the lipid mixing step of fusion, which, interestingly, displays a high pH onset and a biphasic profile. Second-site mutations that partially restore infection partially restore lipid mixing. These findings indicate that the cysteines flanking the internal fusion peptide of EnvA (and perhaps by analogy Ebola virus glycoprotein) are important for the foldback stage of the conformational changes that lead to membrane merger.”
“Correlates of protection from rotavirus infection are controversial. We compared the roles of B and T lymphocytes in protective immunity induced either by intranasally administered nonreplicating viruslike particles or inactivated virus or by orally administered marine rotavirus. We found that protection induced by nonreplicating vaccines requires CD4(+) T cells and CD40/CD40L. In contrast, T cells were not required for short-term protective immunity induced by infection, but both T-cell-dependent and -independent mechanisms contributed to selleck chemicals llc long-term maintenance of protection. Our findings indicate that more than one marker of protective immunity exists and that these markers depend on the vaccine that is administered.”

immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef downregulates HLA-A and -B molecules, but not HLA-C or -E molecules, based on amino acid differences in their cytoplasmic domains to simultaneously evade cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and natural killer cell surveillance. Rhesus macaques and sooty mangabeys express orthologues of HLA-A, -B, and -E, but not HLA-C, and many of these molecules have unique amino acid differences in their cytoplasmic tails. We found that these differences also resulted in differential downregulation by primary simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) SIVsmm/mac and HIV-2 Nef alleles. Thus, selective major histocompatibility complex class I downregulation is a conserved mechanism of immune evasion for pathogenic SIV infection of rhesus macaques and nonpathogenic SIV infection of sooty mangabeys.

The strongest association between NO2 and PEF was observed among

The strongest association between NO2 and PEF was observed among the patients treated with salmeterol. Negative associations were also found between PEF and SO2 and between PEF and PM10, buy HSP990 respectively. The results show that the two medication regimens protected against the effects of PM10. However, salmeterol increased the sensitivity to NO2 and triamcinalone enhanced the sensitivity to SO2.”
“We further support the notion that the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphism may play a role in cognitive

function. A continuous visual 3-back numerical working memory task was performed for an hour among 21 patients with different COMT genotypes. P300 visual event-related potentials evoked from the 3-back task were first utilized to observe the

relationship between this COMT polymorphism and cortical physiology. The results showed that Val/Met heterozygous individuals show poorer performance, lower P300 amplitude, and IWR-1 molecular weight higher P300 latency than those bearing the Val/Val homozygote on the task. This visual 3-back paradigm is a promising tool to examine continuous working memory capacity. The role of the COMT gene in dopamine catabolism makes for the influence of COMT polymorphism on P300 endophenotypes. NeuroReport 20:521-524 (C) 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Dibutyltin (DBT), a widely used plastic stabilizer, has been detected in the AS1842856 mw environment as well as human tissues. Although teratological and developmental effects are well documented, there are no published reports of DBT effects on the developing nervous system. As part of a developmental neurotoxicity study of DBT, tissue samples were periodically

collected to determine the distribution of total tin (Sn) in brain and whole blood. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0, 10, or 25 ppm DBT in drinking water from gestational day (GD) 6 to weaning at postnatal day (PND) 21. Beginning on PND 3, half of the litters were directly dosed every 2 to 3 d via oral gavage with 0, 1, or 2.5 mg/kg DBT such that the dose level matched the water concentration (for example, litters with 25 ppm DBT in the water received 2.5 mg/kg). For Sn analysis, brain and blood samples were collected from culled pups on PND2 (males and females pooled), from pups (males and females separately) as well as dams at weaning (PND21), and from adult offspring (males and females) at PND93. Total Sn was quantified using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). At all ages, brain Sn levels were higher than blood. At culling, in the directly dosed pups at weaning, and in dams at weaning, Sn levels in both tissues were linearly related to dose. Weanling pups without direct dosing showed lower levels than either culled pups or dams, indicating that lactational exposure was minimal or negligible even while maternal exposure is ongoing.

“Stress affects brain activity and promotes long-term chan

“Stress affects brain activity and promotes long-term changes in multiple neural systems. Exposure to stressors causes substantial effects on the perception and response to pain. In several this website animal models, chronic stress produces lasting hyperalgesia. Postmortem studies of patients with stress-related

psychiatric disorders have demonstrated a decrease in the number of astrocytes and the level of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker for astrocyte, in the cerebral cortex. Since astrocytes play vital roles in maintaining neuroplasticity via synapse maintenance and secretion of neurotrophins, damage of astrocytes is thought to be involved in the neuropathology. In the present study we examined GFAP, SI pop and CD11b protein levels in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) after the subacute and chronic

restraint stresses to clarify changes in descending pain modulatory system in the rat with stress-induced hyperalgesia. A 1155463 Chronic restraint stress (6 h/day for 3 weeks), but not subacute restraint stress (6 h/day for 3 days), caused a marked mechanical hypersensitivity. Subacute and chronic restraint stresses induced a significant decrease of GFAP protein level in the RVM (21.9 +/- 3.6%, p < 0.01 and 18.2 +/- 5.1%, p < 0.05 vs. control group, respectively). In the chronic stress group, the GFAP protein level in the RVM was positively correlated with the mechanical threshold (p < 0.05). The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that chronic restraint stress induced a significant decrease in GFAP-immunoreactivity in the nucleus raphe magnus, a part of the RVM, compared to subacute restraint stress. In contrast there was no significant difference in the S100 beta and CD11b

protein levels between the control and stress groups. These findings suggest that the long-lasting decrease of GFAP protein induced by chronic restraint stress causes dysfunction of astrocytes, which may be involved in the impairment of the RVM that plays pivotal roles in pain modulation. (c) 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Arachidonic acid (ARA) is considered Bucladesine mw to be a minor contributor to the diet. Previous reports regarding the effect of ARA supplementation on the composition of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in the blood of humans are extremely limited. In the present study, we conducted a crossover double-blind, placebo-control study. Twenty-three young Japanese women consumed one capsule containing triacylglycerol enriched with 80 mg ARA, equivalent to the amount in one egg, daily for 3 weeks. Blood samples were drawn before and after treatment periods, and the compositions of the LCPUFA in blood lipid fractions were measured.

We investigated 30 never-medicated adult ADHD patients (16 males)

We investigated 30 never-medicated adult ADHD patients (16 males) and 30 matched healthy control individuals. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired during a working

memory paradigm (n-back). Group activation maps and group differences of activation were calculated using voxel-based analyses. The generic activation pattern was more extended in the control group. In ADHD patients, significantly decreased activation was found in the right inferior parietal cortex. Disturbed parietal brain function may particularly contribute to inattention and working memory buy FRAX597 impairment in ADHD patients. NeuroReport 21: 442-446 (C) 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Combinations with proteasome inhibitors are currently being investigated to improve the therapy of hematological malignancies. We previously found that proteasome inhibition by bortezomib failed to sensitize anti-CD30 antibody (Ab)-based lymphoma cell killing. In this study, we demonstrate in L540 Hodgkin’s lymphoma cells that proteasome inhibition not only communicates apoptosis but also more rapidly causes a loss of CD30 antigen from cell membrane and a simultaneous release of soluble CD30, a targeting competitor. This shedding was catalyzed by the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-converting

enzyme (TACE, ADAM17) and blocked by the ADAM17-selective inhibitor, Ro32-7315. In parallel with CD30 shedding, bortezomib see more caused the generation of reactive oxygen

species (ROS). As apoptosis and shedding were inhibited by the radical scavenger, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, ROS might have a pivotal function in both effects. In contrast, the pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD-fmk, blocked bortezomib-induced apoptosis but not CD30 shedding, and Ro32-7315 blocked shedding but allowed apoptosis. This suggests independent terminal signaling pathways that are conflicting in Ab-based immunotherapy. Consequently, shedding inhibition substantially improved the synergistic antitumor efficacy of the human anti-CD30 Ab, MDX-060, and bortezomib. As proteasome inhibition also stimulated loss of TNF receptors, interleukin-6 receptor and syndecan-1 in different leukemia and lymphoma cell lines, we concluded that proteasome inhibition might XAV-939 cost impede targeted therapy against antigens susceptible to shedding. Leukemia (2010) 24, 51-57; doi:10.1038/leu.2009.230; published online 5 November 2009″
“Although the adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector is a promising tool for gene transfer into neurons, especially for therapeutic purposes, neurotropism in primate brains is not fully elucidated for specific AAV serotypes. Here, we injected AAV serotype 8 (AAV8) vector carrying the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene under a ubiquitous promoter into the cerebral cortex, striatum and substantia nigra of common marmosets.

(C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd “
“Objective: No method o

(C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Objective: No method of measuring technical performance exists for the stage I Norwood procedure. Hospital mortality is usually used as a surrogate for technical performance, but

evidence is lacking to support this concept. A technical score was designed by expert consensus.

Methods: The technical score included the following steps: (1) Stage I was divided into subprocedures according to anatomic areas where an intervention is performed. (2) For each subprocedure, three score categories (optimal, adequate, and inadequate) were defined on the basis of echocardiography, catheterization, and/or clinical data. (3) Subprocedures were analyzed for the whole group and by

surgeon. (4) Overall repair was also scored: optimal if all attempted subprocedures were optimal, inadequate if any was inadequate, and adequate CAL-101 mw for everything in between. Acalabrutinib ic50 (5) All patients undergoing the stage I procedure from January 2004 to December 2006 were retrospectively studied.

Results: One hundred ten patients were included (operated on by six surgeons), and 4 were excluded for lack of reliable postoperative data. Most subprocedures were scored as optimal. Subprocedures with the largest inadequate scores were distal arch reconstruction in 7 (6%) patients and aortopulmonary shunt in 3 (5%). No statistical differences were found among surgeons either by subprocedure or by overall outcome, although individual sample sizes were small. The overall score correlated with length of stay, extracorporeal membrane oxygenator support, and hospital mortality.

Conclusions: Technical performance can be measured

after the stage AR-13324 ic50 I procedure, and performance score correlates with early outcome. This score may also be useful as a self-assessment tool.”
“Nitric oxide (NO) is associated with dopamine (DA) release. Previously, we demonstrated that rats treated with a non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N-omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) at postnatal days 4-6 (PD4-6) show increased locomotion and disrupt neuronal cytoarchitecture after puberty (PD60). Here, we investigate whether the modulation of NO production in rats at PD4-6 causes long term changes of NO system, its impact on DA innervation, and schizophrenia-like behaviors. NO levels were measured in seven brain areas at PD35, PD60, PD90, and PD120. Autoradiographic studies explored the effect of L-NNA on the expression of D-1 and D-2 receptors in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) at PD60. Locomotor activity was assessed at PD60 using the non-selective DA agonists, amphetamine and apomorphine, and the selective DA receptor agonist [D-2, quinpirole; D-3, 7-hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propylaminotetralin ((+/-)-7-OH-DPAT)].

Surgical reconstruction of the peripheral pulmonary artery stenos

Surgical reconstruction of the peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis resulted in a significant

decrease in right ventricular pressure. We hypothesize that this reduction in right ventricular pressures will confer a long-term survival advantage for this cohort of patients. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2013;145:476-81)”
“Early-onset drug taking is associated with increased likelihood of addiction, but it is unclear whether early onset is causal in development of addiction. Many other factors are associated with increased risk of addiction and also promote early intake. Here, a rodent model is used to explore the EPZ004777 manufacturer causality of early onset in development of self-administration and addiction-like behavior and to examine factors that promote self-administration.

We used cocaine self-administration to examine drug taking and addiction-like behavior in adolescent and adult rats a priori characterized for their locomotor responses to novelty and cocaine and behavior in the light-dark task.

Adolescent animals initially sought more cocaine than adults. However, as the adolescents matured, their intake fell and they did not differ from adults in terms of unreinforced lever-pressing, extinction or reinstatement behavior. For both age groups, self-administration was positively correlated

with the locomotor response to novelty, the locomotor response to cocaine, and with time in light in the light-dark task. The rats that were insensitive to cocaine’s locomotor effects and that spent the least time in light in the light-dark task sought the least cocaine, appearing selleck chemicals to be “”protected”" from the reinforcing effects of cocaine. There was no difference between the two age groups in appearance of this “”protected”" phenotype.

These results suggest that early onset of drug taking may promote increased use, but does not promote progression to addiction-like behavior. Furthermore, protective factors, such as innate anxiety and insensitivity to cocaine’s pharmacological effects, function across developmental stages.”
“Objective: To determine the health-related

quality of selleck compound life at 4 years of age in children who had undergone cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease in early infancy.

Methods: A prospective cohort study of infants undergoing cardiac surgery at 6 weeks of age or younger from July 2000 to June 2005 at the Stollery Children’s Hospital. The quality of life was assessed using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, version 4.0, generic core scales, and compared with normative values for the same age. The association between the perioperative variables and health-related quality of life was explored.

Results: A total of 242 infants underwent complex heart surgery during the study period. Of the 166 eligible survivors, 130 were included.

We aimed to examine neuronal activities of forebrain structures w

We aimed to examine neuronal activities of forebrain structures with respect to bladder contraction in cats. In 14 adult male cats under ketamine anaesthesia in which a spontaneous isovolumetric bladder-contraction/relaxation cycle had been generated, we carried out extracellular single-unit recording in forebrain with respect to the contraction/relaxation cycles in the bladder. We recorded 112 neurons that were related to the bladder-contraction/relaxation Gilteritinib solubility dmso cycles. Ninety-four neurons were found to be tonically activated during the bladder-relaxation phase, whereas the remaining 18 neurons were tonically activated during the bladder-contraction phase. Both types of neuron were widely distributed

around the cruciate sulcus. Most were located medially (medial and superior frontal gyrus) and the rest were located laterally (middle and inferior frontal gyrus). Neurons recorded in forebrain structures were activated with respect to the contraction/relaxation cycles in the bladder. Forebrain structures may have a significant role in regulating bladder contraction in cats. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Fusogenic reoviruses utilize the FAST proteins, a novel family of nonstructural viral membrane fusion proteins, to induce cell-cell fusion

and syncytium formation. Unlike the paradigmatic enveloped virus fusion proteins, AZD4547 mw the FAST proteins position the majority of their mass within and internal to the membrane in which they reside, resulting in extended C-terminal cytoplasmic tails (CTs). Using tail truncations, we demonstrate that the last 8 residues of the 36-residue CT of the avian reovirus p10 FAST protein

and the last 20 residues of the 68-residue CT of the reptilian reovirus p14 FAST protein enhance, but PSI-7977 nmr are not required for, pore expansion and syncytium formation. Further truncations indicate that the membrane-distal 12 residues of the p10 and 47 residues of the p14 CTs are essential for pore formation and that a residual tail of 21 to 24 residues that includes a conserved, membrane-proximal polybasic region present in all FAST proteins is insufficient to maintain FAST protein fusion activity. Unexpectedly, a reextension of the tail-truncated, nonfusogenic p10 and p14 constructs with scrambled versions of the deleted sequences restored pore formation and syncytiogenesis, while reextensions with heterologous sequences partially restored pore formation but failed to rescue syncytiogenesis. The membrane-distal regions of the FAST protein CTs therefore exert multiple effects on the membrane fusion reaction, serving in both sequence-dependent and sequence-independent manners as positive effectors of pore formation, pore expansion, and syncytiogenesis.”
“Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the commonest encephalitis in South East Asia associated with high morbidity and mortality. Neuronal injury is attributed to a number of proinflammatory cytokines.

2 percentage points, for a relative increase of 3 4%; P = 0 04) <

2 percentage points, for a relative increase of 3.4%; P = 0.04).


State Medicaid expansions to cover low-income adults were significantly associated with reduced

mortality as well as improved coverage, learn more access to care, and self-reported health.”
“Background In trachoma control programmes, azithromycin is distributed to treat the strains of chlamydia that cause ocular disease. We aimed to compare the effect of annual versus twice-yearly distribution of azithromycin on infection with these strains.

Methods We did a cluster-randomised trial in 24 subdistricts in northern Ethiopia, which we randomly assigned to receive annual or twice-yearly treatment for all residents of all ages. Random assignment was done with the RANDOM and SORT functions of Microsoft Excel. All individuals were offered their assigned treatment of a single, directly observed, oral dose of azithromycin. A 6 week course of topical 1% tetracycline ointment, applied twice daily to both eyes but not directly observed, was offered as an alternative to azithromycin in patients younger than 12 months, and in patients with self-reported pregnancy, with allergy, Selleckchem eFT-508 or who refused azithromycin. Our primary, prespecified outcome was the prevalence of ocular chlamydial infection in a random sample of children

aged 0-9 years at baseline and every 6 months for a total of 42 months within sentinel villages. Our analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with, number NCT00322972.

Findings Antibiotic coverage of children aged 1-9 years was greater than 80% (range 80.9 to 93.0) at all study visits. In the groups treated annually, the prevalence of infection in children aged 0-9 years was reduced from a mean 41.9% (95% CI 31.5 to 52.2) at baseline to 1.9% (0.3 to 3.5) at 42 months. In the groups treated twice yearly, the prevalence of infection was reduced from a mean 38.3% (29.0 to 47.6) at baseline to 3.2 % (0.0 to 6.5) at 42 months. The prevalence of ocular

chlamydial infection in children aged 0-9 years in groups selleckchem treated annually was not different from that of the groups treated twice yearly at 18, 30, and 42 months (pooled regression p>0.99, 95 % CI -0.06 to 0.06). The mean elimination time in the twice-yearly treatment group was 7.5 months earlier (2.3 to 17.3) than that of the annual group (p=0.10, Cox proportional hazards model).

Interpretation After 42 months of treatment, the prevalence of ocular infection with chlamydia was similar in the groups treated annually and twice yearly. However, elimination of infection might have been more rapid in the groups of villages that received treatment twice yearly.”
“Cervical cancer originates with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and progresses via histologically defined premalignant stages.

Under the experimental conditions used, alcohol cravings induced

Under the experimental conditions used, alcohol cravings induced by these two stimuli are not sensitive to acamprosate at clinically used doses. Neuropsychopharmacology (2011) 36, 1178-1186; doi: 10.1038/npp.2010.253; published online 2 February 2011″
“Purpose: Urinary diversion has been used as a surgical option for some bladder diseases. We developed a urinary diversion model in the rat and examined the effects of urinary

diversion on the bladder.

Materials and Methods: We distributed female Sprague-Dawley (R) selleck rats into age matched control, sham urinary diversion and urinary diversion groups. Each group was subsequently evaluated 1 or 8 weeks after urinary diversion or sham operation. Diversion was done by surgical disconnection of the ureters from the bladder and implantation to the

uterine cervix. Conscious cystometry was examined. Bladders were harvested for histological examination and quantification of smooth muscle, urothelium and collagen. Vaginal histology was assessed. Bladder muscarinic and purinergic receptor expression was examined.

Results: All rats survived the urinary diversion procedure. Bladder weight decreased in the diversion group. Cystometry showed decreased intercontractile interval and voided volume in the urinary check details diversion group compared to those in the control and sham operated groups. Compliance was decreased in diverted rats. Smooth muscle and urothelium were decreased as a percent of total bladder cross-sectional area. Collagen increased in 1 and 8-week diverted rats vs controls. Histological examination of the vaginal wall revealed mild swelling in 2 rats. Urinary diversion caused decreased muscarinic 3 and ligand gated purinergic 1 receptor expression but no change in muscarinic 2 or ligand gated purinergic 2 receptors.

Conclusions: Creating a urinary diversion model by ureterovaginostomy in the rat is feasible. Urinary diversion causes distinct functional and morphometric bladder alterations.”

in cocaine-induced neurochemical and metabolic responses between buy BAY 63-2521 human beings and rodents motivate the use of non-human primates (NHP) to model consequences of repeated cocaine exposure in human subjects. To characterize the functional response to cocaine infusion in NHP brain, we employed contrast-enhanced fMRI during both non-contingent injection of drug and self-administration of cocaine in the magnet. Cocaine robustly decreased cerebral blood volume (CBV) throughout basal ganglia and motor/pre-motor cortex and produced subtle functional inhibition of prefrontal cortex. No brain regions exhibited significant elevation of CBV in response to cocaine challenge. Theses effects in NHP brain are opposite in sign to the cocaine-induced fMRI response in rats, but consistent with previous measurements in NHP based on glucose metabolism.