It is also consistent with emerging evidence of disruptions of cy

It is also consistent with emerging evidence of disruptions of cyclic AMP-mediated intracellular signaling mechanisms, and may be a marker of these disruptions. It unambiguously demonstrates that neurophysiological disturbances in schizophrenia are not limited to cortical and subcortical structures, but rather include even the most peripheral sensory neurons.”
“Stress and anxiety are mainly regulated by amygdala and hypothalamic circuitries involving several neurotransmitter systems and

providing physiological responses to peripheral organs via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and other pathways. The role of endogenous opioid peptides in this process is largely unknown. Here we show for the first time that anxiolytic parameters of explorative behavior in mice lacking prodynorphin were increased 2-4-fold in the open field, the elevated plus maze and the light-dark test. Consistent with this, treatment of wild-type mice with selective kappa-opioid receptor antagonists GNTI or norbinaltorphimine showed the

same effects. Furthermore, treatment of prodynorphin knockout animals with U-50488H, a selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist, fully reversed their anxiolytic phenotype. These behavioral data are supported by an approximal 30% reduction in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus Sonidegib in vitro and central amygdala and an accompanying ARS-1620 concentration 30-40% decrease in corticosterone serum levels in prodynorphin

knockout mice. Although stress-induced increases in corticosterone levels were attenuated in prodynorphin knockout mice, they were associated with minor increases in depression-like behavior in the tail suspension and forced swim tests. Taken together, our data suggest a pronounced impact of endogenous prodynorphin-derived peptides on anxiety, but not stress coping ability and that these effects are mediated via kappa-opioid receptors. The delay in the behavioral response to kappa-opioid receptor agonists and antagonist treatment suggests an indirect control level for the action of dynorphin, probably by modulating the expression of CRH or neuropeptide Y, and subsequently influencing behavior.”
“Commonly used experimental paradigms of environmental enrichment combine increased social interactions and sensory inputs and renewal of the objects present in the environment. However, the specific contribution of novelty to the effects of enrichment is unclear. Here, we show that repeated daily exposure to single novel odorants and not to an enriched but stable olfactory environment improves short-term olfactory memory and neurogenesis in the mouse olfactory bulb. In addition, these positive effects are mediated by noradrenalin as they are blocked by a noradrenergic receptor antagonist. These data suggest that novelty recognition and noradrenergic mechanisms are crucial in mediating neural plasticity induced by olfactory enrichment.

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