For a majority of groups of fungi, ITS is the predominantly avail

For a majority of groups of fungi, ITS is the predominantly available sequence in public databases (Nilsson et al. 2008, 2014; Kõljalg et al. 2013). Although ITS has been widely used in fungal systematics to delimit

species and to understand evolutionary relationships, there are several known issues with the effectiveness of this CRT0066101 chemical structure region including the overestimating and underestimating fungal diversity (Schoch et al. 2012, 2014). On average the variability of the ITS1 exceeds that of ITS2, while the 5.8S fragment embedded between these two regions is highly conserved, and results of phylogenetic analysis of the complete sequence may differ from the analysis of the individual sub-loci (Nilsson et al. 2008; Monard et al. 2013). The ITS region in the nuclear ribosomal cistron has undergone Caspase inhibitor non-concerted patterns of evolution leading to paralogous ITS types within species in some important plant pathogenic genera (O’Donnell and Cigelnik 1997; Nilsson et al. 2008; Santos et al. 2010) and is considered by some authors to be uninformative due to the lack of interspecific variation or even misleading in some fungi (Crouch et al. 2009; Gaziz et

al. 2011; Maharachchikumbura et al. 2012; Weir et al. 2012). Although complications resulting from ITS sequence data in Diaporthe have been recognised by several previous authors, they have not been thoroughly examined (Farr et al. 2002; Murali et al. 2006; Udayanga et al. 2014). In Santos et al. (2010) two ITS types tentatively named as A and B recovered from the isolates Di-C005/1-10 from Hydrangea in Portugal, derived from 10 individual sibling ascospores from the same Temsirolimus cell line perithecium were

similar to the two large groups observed in P-type ATPase our analysis (Fig. 1-a). However, our study reveals that the unidentified isolates Di-C005/1-10 belong to Diaporthe eres and cluster together as one species in the EF1-α phylogenetic tree. These differences were confined to the ITS1 region and are more extensive than the minor differences often noted among isolates of a single species. Sequence heterogeneity was not noted in the EF1-α and mating type genes for these same sibling isolates and the isolates were fully reproductively compatible (Santos et al. 2010). The same study further noted that both ITS types were not found in the genome of the same isolate, indicating that the different ITS types are independently segregated in meiotic events in this species. Comparison of the geographic origins and host associations of the isolates of D. eres used in this study with respect to the occurrence of two ITS types revealed that the different ITS sequences can be observed even within the same geographic region and the same host. We detected no evidence of sympatric patterns or host specialisation related to these ITS populations. The discordance of ITS versus other gene trees in combination with a lack of informative morphological characters to delineate taxa have lead to a confused taxonomic situation within this species complex.

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