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“Background Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are among the most important resistance determinants spreading worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae [1, 2]. During the 1980s, ESBLs evolved from TEM and SHV broad-spectrum-β-lactamases, frequently associated to Klebsiella pneumoniae involved in nosocomial outbreaks. Over the last decade, CTX-M-type ESBLs have increased dramatically, and become the most prevalent ESBLs worldwide, frequently associated to Escherichia coli.