“Reproductive functions in adult organism are known to be affected by different factors. Effects of social environment at the postnatal ontogenesis attract particular attention since it has deep impact on the development of physiological and emotional state of an individual. Effects of chronic social isolation MK-8931 concentration at different ages on male sexual motivation, testosterone and corticosterone response under conditions of sexual arousal were studied in Wistar rats. After weaning at 21 day of age, rats of one group were isolated for
six weeks and after that they were housed in groups of five per cage for ten weeks (Iso3-9). Rats of the second group were housed in groups of five animals per cage till 13 weeks of age, and then they were isolated for six weeks (Iso13-19). Rats of the control group were housed in
groups during the experiment. Adult 19 week-old male rats were tested under conditions of sexual arousal. The expression of sexual motivation was estimated as the behavioral activity of a male at the transparent perforated partition separating a receptive female. Isolation of adult male rats reduced the number of approaches to the partition, while the period of time a male spent at the partition was not changed and testosterone response was enhanced as compared to control rats. Chronic social isolation during peri-adolescence reduced sexual motivation and prevented PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor cancer arousal-induced elevation of testosterone. Plasma corticosterone increases at sexual arousal in the two groups of isolated rats did not differ from that in controls. Our results are evidence that social isolation during the post-maturity stage (Iso13-19) did not diminish the manifestation of sexual motivation and hormonal response to a receptive female, while isolation during peri-adolescence attenuated behavioral and hormonal expression of sexual arousal in adult males.”
“PURPOSE. To investigate the impact of interocular similarities of a surround stimulus on foveal resolution acuity in the normally developing visual system.\n\nMETHODS. Liquid crystal shutter goggles
synchronized with AZD6244 MAPK inhibitor the monitor frame rate were used to present a Landolt C and surround bars to one or both eyes, in monocular, dichoptic, half-binocular, and binocular viewing conditions. Resolution acuity was measured under each condition in 56 normally sighted children (7 to 14 years of age) and 22 adults (21 to 38 years of age). The effect of the surround bars (crowding) was tested in a subgroup of nine children, and 10 adults.\n\nRESULTS. Across all age groups resolution acuity was significantly better in the binocular condition than in the other three viewing conditions (binocular summation), and was significantly better in the half-binocular (with target presented to the test eye and bars presented to both eyes) than in the dichoptic condition (target presented to test eye and bars presented to the nontested eye only).