s pv syringae

s. pv. syringae

selleck kinase inhibitor biocontrol agents and P. digitatum in vitro and in vivo. “
“Allium sativum L. samples of three cultivars grown in Sudan were shown to contain several of the common garlic viruses of the genera Potyvirus, Carlavirus and Allexivirus. In particular, Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), Garlic common latent virus (GarCLV), Garlic virus A (GVA), Garlic virus B (GVB), Garlic virus C (GVC) and Garlic virus X (GVX) were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay using degenerate genus-specific and virus-specific primer sets. Multiple viral infections with members of all three genera were found in all but one sample. Further, molecular and phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences revealed that Sudanese isolates of LYSV, GarCLV and of Allexivirus genus were significantly divergent in partial coat protein genomic region from isolates of the same species retrieved from GenBank. This is the first report and study

on viruses infecting garlic in Sudan. “
“Verticillium dahliae Kleb. is a necrotrophic plant Obeticholic Acid mw pathogen that causes serious soil-borne vascular disease in cotton. The molecular basis of cotton response to this pathogen is poorly understood. To capture a wide spectrum of differentially expressed genes in the cotton defence response, RNA isolated from Gossypium barbadense was selleck chemicals llc employed to generate highly enriched transcripts by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-select suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). A total of 211 unique genes were differentially identified and classified into 11 functional categories. The largest

groups contain genes involved in metabolism, stress/defence response, cell structure and signal transduction. More than one-third of the genes (38%) were identified as unknown classification or function. Northern blot analysis and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) were performed to investigate the expression patterns of some representative genes and characterize the role of some signal molecules (H2O2, ethylene, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid) in the cotton defence response. This study identified a set of disease-related genes involved in the process of the response, including pathogenesis-related genes of various classes, oxidative burst-related genes and secondary metabolism-related genes. The characterization of some transcription factors and kinases enabled us to better understand the defence mechanisms. Our results suggested that a complicated and concerted mechanism involving multiple pathways including salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene was responsible for the cotton defence response to V. dahliae. The expression changes of the ethylene biosynthesis and response genes (ACO1, ACS6, EIN2 and ERF1) in the response of both susceptible and resistant cultivars to V.

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