Tumors constitute a solitary world with an internal context This solitary world is represented by highly specific topologies of aggregated action effects. As indicated
by moderate systemic toxicity profiles of the administered modular therapies, these action effects obviously need to be clearly separated from those appearing in a normal organ context. Systems-related biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein in serum or selleck chemicals PPARgamma expression in tumor cells, may guide modular therapies. Corresponding systems changes may be closely linked to clinical response after modular therapy. Therefore, the redemption process of a novel therapy-guided validity may be followed early in BI 10773 solubility dmso the therapeutic process by indicators specifically associated with functional changes in single systems features. Interestingly, the AG-881 manufacturer validity of prognostic markers in malignant tumors can change with the tumor stage as demonstrated for COX-2 expression and PPARgamma expression in melanoma cells . Tumors are integrated systems Randomized trials clearly indicate that tumors may be described by communicatively integrated and
interwoven systems: In melanoma, both metronomic chemotherapy and pioglitazone plus rofecoxib independently develop clinical systems-directed activities and even seem to act synergistically : Tumor-specific topologies of aggregated action effects may be specifically
targeted with differential modular approaches to enhance therapeutic efficacy as tumors are composed by various modular elements, which are drawn into inter-systemic exchange processes (possible synergism). The modularity of a tumor is an independent tumor characteristic As described, the modular systems concept does not these follow the classic systems perception of functional pathophysiology. It is exclusively communication-derived and guided by redeeming novel validity through modular therapy approaches. Besides histology or molecular pathology, the modularity of a tumor is an independent tumor characteristic : Tumors are additionally represented in a modular communicative architecture. The modular architecture of tumor-associated cell systems is directly embedded in the holistic totality of the tumor’s living world. Modular therapy approaches may be designed tumor-specifically and stage-specifically (Table 2) The advantage of a modular view of therapeutic interventions is the situative reference in topologies of aggregated action effects. The therapeutic value of the topologies of aggregated action effects lies in the presentation character of current communicative circumstances.